Skip to main content

Full text of "Fenway project completion report"

See other formats




Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 

in  2011  with  funding  from 

Boston  Public  Library 

1983  Survey  &  Planninsr  Grant 

mperty  Of 


MT  A.nTunKifv 

PART  I  -FENWAY  Project  Completion  Report 

submitted  August  31, 1984  to 
Massachusetts  Historical   Commission 


Boston  Landmarks  Commission 
Boston  Redevelopment  Authority 

COVER  PHOTO:   Fenway,  1923 

Courtesy  of  The  Bostonian  Society 


Prepared  by 

Rosalind  Pollan 
Carol  Kennedy 
Edward  Gordon 



AUGUST  1984 

(contained  in  this  volume) 



Brief  history  of  The  Fenway 

Review  of  Architectural  Styles 

Notable  Areas  of  Development  and  Sub  Area  Maps 


General  Procedures 
Evaluation  -  Recording 


A.  Districts 

National  Register  of  Historic  Places 
Boston  Landmark  Districts 
Architectural  Conservation  Districts 

B.  Individual  Properties 
National  Register  Listing 
Boston  Landmark  Designation 
Further  Study  Areas 

Appendix  I  -  Sample  Inventory  Forms 

Appendix  II  -  Key  to  IOC  Scale  Inventory  Maps 

Appendix  III  -  Inventory  Coding  System 

Map  I  -  Fenway  Study  Area 

Map  II  -  Sub  Areas 

Map  III  -  District  Recommendations 

Map  IV  -  Individual  Site  Recommendations 

Map  V  -  Sites  for  Further  Study 


(see  separate  volume) 



General  Procedures 
Evaluation  -  Recording 



n  •— 


<       ^ 





>      2 





§         o 

z  yi 

LU    1 

L^    1 

■  o 




The  Fenway  Preservation  Study,  conducted  from  September  1983  to  July 
1984,  was  administered  by  the  Boston  Landmarks  Commission,  with  the  assistance 
of  a  matching  grant-in-aid  from  the  Department  of  the  Interior,  National  Park 
Service,  through  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Commission,  Office  of  the 
Secretary  of  State,  Michael  J.  Connelly,  Chairman,  under  the  provisions  of  the 
National  Historic  Preservation  Act  of  1966.*   The  local  share  of  the  project 
was  provided  by  the  Boston  Redevelopment  Authority  and  the  City  of  Boston 
Environment  Department  and  Historic  Boston,  Incorporated.   The  study  was 
conducted  by  Rosalind  Pollan,  Carol  Kennedy  and  Edward  Gordon,  architectural 
historians  and  consultants  to  the  Boston  Landmarks  Commission.   Staff 
supervision  was  provided  by  Judith  McDonough,  Director  of  Survey  and  Planning. 

The  goal  of  the  project  was  to  undertake  an  in-depth  architectural  and 
historical  survey  of  the  Fenway  study  area  and  to  make  recommendations  for 
National  Register  and  Boston  City  Landmarks  designations.   Specific  goals 
included  preparation  of  individual  information  forms  for  certain  selected 
buildings  of  architectural  or  historic  significance,  as  well  as  evaluating  the 
relative  significance  of  each  building  for  which  a  form  was  prepared. 

The  method  of  recording  and  evaluating  buildings,  as  explained  in  the 
Methodology  section,  follows  the  pattern  established  in  the  previous  phases  of 
the  Comprehensive  Boston  Preservation  Study  conducted  by  the  Boston  Landmarks 
Commission  and  begun  in  1977. 

The  boundaries  of  the  1983-4  Fenway  Study  Area  are  shown  on  Map  1. 

*However,  the  contents  and  opinions  do  not  necessarily  reflect  the  views  or 
policies  of  the  Department  of  the  Interior,  or  the  Massachusetts  Historical 
Commission,  nor  does  the  mention  of  trade  names  of  commercial  products 
constitute  endorsement  of  recommendation  by  the  Department  of  the  Interior,  or 
the  Massachusetts  Historical  Commission." 


Originally,  the  Fenway  was  made  up  of  unfilled  Charles  River  Basin  flats 
with  the  Muddy  River  weaving  in  an  out  of  the  region.   In  addition,  this  area 
encompassed  two  former  peninsulas:  Gravelly  Point  (site  of  the  present  day 
Christian  Science  Church  Complex,  extending  west  to  the  Back  Bay  Fens)  and 
Sewalls  Point  (projecting  from  Brookline,  including  what  is  now  Kenmore  Square 
and  Audubon  Circle) . 

Between  1818  and  1821,  Uriah  Cotting  and  the  Boston  and  Roxbury  Mill 
Corporation  built  two  dams  dividing  the  Charles  River  Basin  at  this  point,  and 
channelled  the  power  source  for  mill  sites  that  were  then  to  be  located  along 
Gravelly  Point.   The  milling  operation  existed  for  about  thirty  years  until 
developing  residential  land  use  made  the  flood  basin  an  unacceptable  neighbor. 

The  area  to  the  west  of  Gravelly  Point  and  the  cross  dam  was  made  up  of 
the  uninhabitable  marshes  of  the  Muddy  River  and  acted  as  a  sewage  collector. 
The  railway  lines  running  through  the  Basin  exacerbated  the  problem  of 
standing  water  and  forced  the  need  for  filling  the  region. 

The  mill  was  shut  down  in  the  late  1850' s.  Landfill  commenced  from 
Arlington  Street,  and  progressed  steadily  westward,  with  the  City  always 
realizing  substantial  profits  from  sales  of  fill  rights.  Landowners  in  the 
Gravelly  Point  area  and  to  the  south,  on  what  is  now  Massachusetts  Avenue, 
expected  that  in  due  time  their  land  would  be  contiguous  with  the  emerging 
Back  Bay  residential  neighborhood.   When  the  Back  Bay  grid  was  conceived  and 
laid  out,  it  was  assumed  that  the  street  pattern  would  eventually  grow  to 
adjoin  Brookline.  However,  the  many  railroad  tracks  built  across  the  Basin  at 
the  time  of  the  Back  Bay  landfill  impeded  this  growth. 

With  the  South  End  landfill  project  completed  and  the  Back  Bay  growing 
steadily  westward  toward  Gravelly  Point,  the  city  officials,  in  1875,  created 

*This  section  is  largely  taken  from  the  Fenway/Boylston  Street  District 
National  Register  Nomination  form. 

a  three-man  Park.  Commission  to  develop  a  park,  system  for  the  city  and  to  solve 
the  problem  of  the  drainage  of  the  Full  Basin.   The  Fens  area  at  this  time 
represented  the  boundary  between  Boston  and  Brookline.   Not  only  did  it  drain 
these  areas,  but  it  drained  Roxbury  and  Dorchester  as  well.  The  Muddy  River 
and  Stony  Brook  emptied  into  the  Marsh  before  moving  to  the  Charles  River 
tidal  basin. 

In  1878,  the  Park  Commission  asked  Frederick  Law  Olmsted  to  review 
various  proposals  that  had  been  developed  to  solve  the  problems  created  by  the 
marshy,  odorous  site.   Olmsted  rejected  the  proposals,  believing  they  failed 
both  to  solve  the  drainage  problem  and  to  create  a  public  park.   His  own 
solution  for  the  area  he  was  to  name  the  "Back  Bay  Fens"  did  both.   From  1879 
to  1893,  the  tidal  gates  were  constructed,  a  sewage  interceptor  buried  in  the 
Boston  side  of  the  Fens  basin  to  provide  run-off  for  Stony  Brook,  the  path  of 
the  Muddy  River  altered,  and  the  land  filled  in  around  the  conduit  and  subtly 
and  naturalistically  reshaped  to  create  a  public  park.   The  Back  Bay  Fens 
became  a  jewel  in  the  coordinated  park  system  envisioned  by  Olmsted. 

In  the  1895  Boston  Park  Guide,  Sylvester  Baxter  described  the  Fens  as 
"primarily  an  engineering  work  designed  to  effect  a  drainage  and  sanitation 
improvement".  He  continued. 

To  give  the  desirable  landscape  aspect  to  the  scene,  a  strikingly 
original  but  beautifully  simple  design  was  adopted,  in  simulation  of  the 
characteristic  salt-marsb  scenery  of  the  New  England  Coast  —  a  brackish 
creek,  meandering  amidst  fens  with  bosky  banks.   This  landscape  was  ... 
so  natural  ...  so  resemblant  to  the  scenes  that  once  existed  in  the  near 
neighborhood,  that  it  gives  the  impression  that,  by  some  fortunate 
accident,  a  typical  landscape  of  this  character  had  been  preserved  for 
its  exceptional  charm  in  the  midst  of  the  city  growing  up  around  it.  1 

The  westward  movement  of  the  growing  city  brought  new  buildings  to  the 
area.   Following  the  great  fire  of  1872,  many  of  the  institutions  once  located 

in  downtown  Boston  began  to  look  to  this  new  Fens  area  for  accomodation.   Land 
was  sold  at  public  auction  to  developers  and.  speculators  and  turned  into  the 
East  and  West  Fens,  largely  consisting  of  adjoining  apartment  or  hotel 
complexes.   The  present  day  Hemenway  Street,  is  on  the  site  of  the  Cross  Dam 
built  across  the  Full  Basin  of  Back  Bay  in  1818.   The  street  (projected  as  an 
avenue  to  the  Brookline  town  line  as  early  as  1855)  was  built  in  1878,  as  was 
Westland  Avenue.   In  1879,  according  to  Olmsted's  plan  for  the  Back  Bay  Fens, 
The  Fenway  was  designed  as  a  raised  roadway  to  skirt  the  eastern  edge  of  the 
Fens.  Hitchcock  refers  to  its  as,  "the  first  parkway  approach  to  an  American 
city."  2  Westland  Avenue  was  proposed  as  a  major  entrance  to  the  park.   In 
1888,  Boylston  Street  was  extended  from  Exeter  Street  to  The  Fenway. 

By  the  late  1880' s,  there  were  numerous  horsecar  railroad  lines 
travelling  within  the  Fenway /Kenmo re  area.  Almost  all  these  transportation 
lines  merged  into  the  West  End  Street  Railway  Company  in  1887,  and  by  1889  it 
began  their  first  electric  car  line  opera-ting  between  Boston  and  Brookline. 

The  West  End  Street  Railway's  electric  car  service  triggered  residential 
development  in  the  Audubon  Circle  area  beginning  c.  1888  and  continuing  until 
1915.  Beacon  Street  had  been  laid  out  as  a  50'  wide  country  road  as  early  as 
1851.   It  ran  from  Harvard  Street,  Brookline  to  the  Mill  Dam.  The  Audubon 
Circle  area  was  annexed  from  Brookline  by  Boston  in  1870.   In  1886-1887, 
Beacon  Street,  from  the  Boston  and  Albany  railroad  tracks  to  Cleveland  Circle 
was  transformed  into  a  160'  "model  French  Boulevard"  by  Frederick  Law 
Olmsted.   The  260'  in  diameter  Audubon  (originally  Burlington)  Circle  was 
linked  to  the  Back  Bay  Fens  via  Park  Drive  (originally  Audubon  Road).   Henry 
M.  Whitney,  West  End  Street  Railway  Co.  president,  envisioned  Audubon  Circle 
and  vicinity  as  an  extension  of  the  fashionable  Back  Bay  residential 
district.  During  the  1890' s  and  early  1900 's  Beacon  Street  and  Audubon  Circle 
became  lined  with  townhouses  that  came  close  to  matching  the  design  quality 
and  craftsmanship  of  Back  Bay  housing. 

By  1892,  residents  near  the  Fens  could  travel  to  and  from  downtown  Boston  via 
lines  on  the  principal  streets  including  one  on  Boylston  Street  from  Park 
Street  to  Massachusetts  Avenue.   During  the  early  1890' s'Kenmore  Square  was 


initially  developed  with  rowhouses.   Two  grass  covered,  ornamented  triangular 
lots  were  planned  for  the  center  of  the  square  but  were  apparently  never 
implemented.   As  early  as  the  1860's  the  Kenmore  Square  area  was  partially 
laid  out  from  Charlesgate  West  to  St.  Mary's  Street.  Beacon  Street  in  1860 
continued  across  the  Mill  Dam  as  far  as  Brookline.   This  was  followed  in  1861 
by  Brookline  Avenue  extending  from  what  is  now  Kenmore  Square  to  the  Muddy 
River  at  its  Brookline  boundary.   In  1868,  Commonwealth  Avenue  (originally 
Brighton  Road)  reached  from  Kenmore  Square  to  Brighton,  and  by  1881,  reached 

It  should  be  noted  that,  in  the  East  Fens  unique  market  pressures  were 
brought  to  bear  on  the  newly  created  land  due  to  its  proximity  to  both  the 
Back  Bay  (NR  1975,  LHD  1966)  and  the  South  End  (NR  1973,  LHD  1984).   As  the 
reputation  of  the  Back  Bay  was  ascending  with  each  new  block  of  fine  houses, 
the  neighborhood  directly  south  of  the  Fens  —  the  South  End  —  declined.   The 
so-called  flight  from  the  South  End  was  hastended  by  unscrupulous  land 
speculators,  a  credit  crunch,  and  a  financial  panic.  What  had  started  in  the 
1840 's  as  the  city's  newest  fashionable  district  was,  by  the  1890' s,  a 
hodgepodge  use  of  roominghouses  and  tenements. 


Sandwiched  between  the  Back  Bay  and  the  South  End,  the  Fens  region 
reflected  the  primarily  residential  land  use  of  both  neighborhoods  but  was 
unique  in  drawing  many  cultural  and  educational  institutions  seeking  room  for 
expansion  in  new  locations  on  undeveloped  land.   Once  the  Harvard  Bridge  to 
Cambridge,  now  known  as  the  Massachusetts  Avenue  bridge,  was  completed  in  1891 
and  brought  cross-town  traffic  through  the  area,  the  lots  on  Massachusetts  and 
Huntington  Avenues  were  quickly  developed.  The  Christian  Science  Church  was 
built  in  1894,  and  many  institutions  soon  followed.  Two  of  the  earliest 
institutions  in  the  new  area  located  in  The  Fenway /Boylston  Street  District. 

The  Massachusetts  Historical  Society  moved  in  1897  from  Tremont  Street  to 
the  corner  of  Boylston  Street  and  The  Fenway,  land  they  had  purchased  in 
1892.   Swiftly  following  was  the  Boston  Medical  Library  which  built  on 

neighboring  lots  and  opened  in  1900.   Members  stated  the  site  was,  "the  only 
one  worthy  of  the  dignity  of  the  profession,  and  that  a  handsome  building 
there  will  bring  us  notice,  money  and  reputation."  3  - 

Other  important  cultural  institutions  which  built  in  the  East  Fens  during 
the  1890' s  and  1910* s  include  Horticultural  Hall  (1903),  New  England 
Conservatory  of  Music  (1903),  Symphony  Hall  (1899-1900)  and  the  Museum  of  Fine 
Arts  (1907-8). 


The  Longwood /Fenway  section,  to  the  southwest  of  the  Back  Bay  Fens,  was 
another  important  hub  of  institutional  construction  activity  during  the  1890' s 
and  1910' s  —  particularly  as  a  center  for  medical  facilities.  This  area, 
too,  was  originally  made  up  of  the  Muddy  River,  Stony  Brook  and  marshes.  By 
1832,  Francis  and  Parker  Street  and  Brookline  Avenue  were  laid  out,  and  in 
1861,  Longwood  Avenue  extended  from  what  is  now  the  Riverway  to  Parker 
Street.   In  1873,  one  could  see  the  water  of  Stony  Brook  right  up  to  Longwood 
Avenue  and  Pater  Street.  The  Sewall  and  Day  Cordage  Company  and  the  Boston 
Waterpower  Company  had  their  works  here  and  the  area  was  covered  with  rope 
walks  and  dams.   With  the  filling  of  the  Fens,  development  of  the  area  quickly 

Isabella  Gardner  began  construction  of  her  museum  in  1899  and  it 
officially  opened  to  the  public  in  1903.   Other  institutions  followed  suit. 
Harvard  Medical  College  constructed  five  new  marble  buildings  on  Longwood 
Avenue  in  1906.  The  college  originally  purchased  26  acres  of  land  but  only 
used  eleven  acres  for  the  medical  school.   They  subsequently  sold  the 
remaining  fifteen  acres  to  the  Peter  Bent  Brigham  Hospital  (1912)  and 
Children's  Hospital  (1914),  so  that  these  hospitals  might  be  close  to  the 
medical  school  buildings  and  to  be  used  for  clinical  teaching  in  affiliation 
with  the  school.   This  "revolutionary"  idea  obviously  caught  on  as  many 
medical  institutions  followed  these  innovators  into  the  area.   (Harvard 
Medical  College  now  includes  the  Harvard  Dental  School,  the  School  of  Public 
Health  and  Vanderbilt  Hall.) 

Other  medical  institutions  as  well  as  colleges  have  since  settled  in  the 
Fenway:   Angell  Memorial  Animal  Hospital  (until  recently),  Beth  Israel  Hospital 
(1928),  The  New  England  Deaconess  Hospital  (1896),  The  House  of  Good 
Samaritan,  Simmons  College,  Emmanuel  College,  English  High  School  and  Boston 
Latin  High  School. 

The  most  recently  developed  section  of  the  Fenway  Survey  area  is  the  West 
Fens.   However,  as  early  as  the  1880' s,  Park  Drive  (formerly  Auburn  Road)  was 
laid  out  as  part  of  Olmsted's  Park  Drive  during  late  1890 's  -  early  1900 's  in 
anticipation  of  substantial  row  house  development  similar  to  that  of  the 
Fenway,  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  Back  Bay  Fens.  Residential  development  of 
this  scale  did  not  predominate  in  the  West  Fens.  Rather,  opened  land  proved 
more  speculative  to  land  developers,  who  raised  four  and  five  story  apartment 
buildings.  The  section  south  of  Boylston  St.  was  almost  entirely  developed 
with  fairly  large  adjoining  apartment  complexes  oriented  to  the  Back  Bay  Fens 
and  very  similar  in  style  to  the  apartment  structure  on  the  opposite  side  of 
the  Fens.  North  of  Boylston  St.  (to  the  railroad  tracks),  the  area  housed 
commercial  and  light  industrial  facilities  as  well  as  a  riding  school  (1900), 
Boston's  Fenway  Park  (1912)  and  the  huge  Sears  Roebuck  and  Company  store  at 
the  comer  of  Brookline  Ave.  and  Park  Drive  (1928). 

The  Fenway  area  continues  to  encompass  many  diverse  neighborhoods. 
Although  this  area  Is  characterized  primarily  by  residential  buildings.  The 
Fenway  is  also  a  major  center  for  the  cultural,  medical  and  educational 
institutions.  The  original  residential  character  of  certain  sections,  e.g. 
Massachusetts  Ave.  and  Kenmore  Square  have  been  altered  to  acomodate 
commercial  concerns,  colleges  and  universities.   This  is  particulaly  the  case 
in  the  Kenmore  Square  area  with  many  buildings  adapted  for  use  by  Boston 

A.   Residential 

The  Fenway's  domestic  architecture  is  composed  primarily  of  single  family 
row  houses  dating  from  as  early  as  1871  to  c.  1910  and  large  apartment 
complexes  built  from  c.  1910-1930.   Its  residential  building  stock  includes 
both  modestly  scaled  speculatively  built  row  houses  and  substantial,  stylish 
town  houses,  representing  a  variety  of  materials  and  styles. 

The  earliest  extant  residence  in  the  survey  area  is  an  Italianate,  gable  on 
side  wall  plan  frame  on  Short  St.  which  dates  to  the  1850 's  and  is  now  part  of 
a  Simmons  College's  residential  campus.   #4  Short  Street  exhibits  Italianate 
and  Stick  Style  elements.  Both  structures  are  located  in  the  Longwood /Fenway 
sub  area. 

The  mansard  style  is  represented  by  a  modest,  extremely  plain  group  of 
brick  row  houses  at  220-226  Hemmenway  St.  (1871).  A  mansard  roof  appears  as  a 
curiously  retardaire  feature  of  a  1903  Queen  Anne  and  Georgian  Revival 
detailed  townhouse  designed  by  and  built  for  Boston  architect  Theodore  M. 
Clarke  at  107  Park  Drive. 

The  Queen  Anne  style  was  frequently  employed  in  town  house  architectural 
designs  throughout  the  Fenway,  usually  blended  with  other  styles  including 
Richardsonian,  Romanesque  and  Georgian  Revival.   Early  examples  of  the  Queen 
Anne  styles  in  the  survey  area  include  the  row  house  enclave  with  conically 
capped  bow  fronts  at  3-15  Symphony  Road,  designed  and  built  by  David  W.  Thomas 
in  1886.   S.D.  Kelley  designed  several  well  crafted  Queen  Anne /Romanes que 
Revival  single  family  row  house  groups,  including  918-924  Beacon  St.,  near 
Audubon  Circle  (1892).   St.  Germain  St.,  with  its  relatively  modest  Queen  Anne/ 
Romanesque  row  houses,  has  been  recently  renovated  in  its  entirety  (e.g.  8-36 
and  15-25,  1892-93).   Also  noteworthy  is  the  Lord  and  Fuller  designed  group  of 
three  Queen  Anne  row  houses  at  428  Symphony  Road  (1885-1886).   The  stylish 
townhouses  at  52  and  54  The  Fenway  represent  late  examples  of  this  style. 
Built  in  1893,  they  were  designed  by  Hartwell  and  Richardson,  best  known  for 

their  Richardsonian  Romanesque  design  for  the  first  Spiritualist  Temple  (now 
Exeter  Street  Theater). 

The  Georgian  or  Colonial  Revival  style  is  by  far  the  best  represented 
style  in  the  Fenway.   Examples  range  from  handsome  wood  shingle  covered,  two 
family  houses  on  Fenwood  Ave  In  the  Longwood  section,  (e.g.  #36  and  #40,  1900) 
to  high  style  townhouses  designed  by  leading  Boston  architectural  firms.  The 
Fenway /Boylston  St.  National  Register  district  bounding  the  east  side  of  the 
Back  Bay  Fens  in  particularly  rich  in  Georgian  Revival  townhouses.  Noteable 
examples  include  the  Arthur  Bowditch  designed  28  and  30  The  Fenway  (1895),  an 
early  work  of  Albert  C.  Fernald  at  36-38  The  Fenway  (1894)  and  the  relatively 
late  Brigham  designed  34  The  Fenway  (1910).  The  Georgian  Revival  style  was 
blended  with  the  Classical  Revival  style  on  the  curved,  buff  brick  and  white 
limestone  facade  at  877  Beacon  St. and  Audubon  Circle.   It  was  designed  by  S.D, 
Kelley  in  1895.  The  impressive  sweep  of  apartment  building  facades 
overlooking  the  Back  Bay  Fens  at  117  and  121,  125-151  Park  Drive  (1910' s) 
exhibits  an  appealing  melange  of  Georgian  Revival  elements.  Both  sides  of 
Gainsborough  Street  in  the  east  Fens  are  lined  with  red  brick,  bow  front  and 
white  limestone  trimmed  row  houses.  Encompassing  37  buildings,  each  of  these 
structures  were  built  to  house  four  units  rather  than  the  more  standard  single 
family  type. 

Like  the  Georgian  Revival,  the  Federal  Revival  is  well  represented  by 
substantial  townhouses  along  the  Fenway.  Notable  examples  include  the  Robert 
S.  Peabody  designed  24  The  Fenway  (1900)  and  32  The  Fenway,  designed  by  Dabney 
and  Hayward  in  1899. 

The  Beaux  Arts  style  was  utilized  for  early  20th  century  apartment 
buildings.  The  most  notable  examples  were  designed  by  Fred  A.  Norcross  and 
include  the  five  story,  tan  brick  apartment  house  at  114  The  Fenway 
(1912-1913)  and  the  flamboyantly  ornamented  terra  cotta  faced  80-84  The  Fenway 

Renaissance  Revival  motifs  and  elements  are  featured  on  a  well  detailed 
brownstone  townhouse  at  875  Beacon  St.  (1895)  and  the  Arthur  Bowditch  designed 
six  family  apartment  buildings  at  465  Park  Drive  (1897). 

Much  of  Audubon  Circle's  charm  is  derived  from  the  presence  of  Jacobethan 
residences  along  its  edges.   The  group  of  red  brick  row  houses  at  899-909 
Beacon  St.  at  the  southwestern  side  of  Audubon  Circle  are  characterized  by 
octagonal  bays,  flemish  gables  and  a  modified  octagonal  conically  capped  tower 
at  the  intersection  of  Beacon  St.  and  Park  Drive  (early  1900' s).   In  addition 
the  concave  main  facade  of  Kilham  and  Hopkins'  Jacobethan  three  family 
apartment  of  c.  1905  echoes  the  curved  edge  of  Audubon  Circle.  Just  to  the 
orth  of  Audubon  Circle,  at  516-522  Park  Drive  is  a  large  u  -  shaped  apartment 
complex  known  as  Audubon  Court  which  was  built  in  1915.  The  Jacobethan  style, 
also  along  with  the  ubiquitous  Georgian  Revival  style,  is  evident  at  the  red 
brick  and  white  terra  cotta  fronted  Stuart  and  Summer  apartment  complexes  at 
31-45  and  36-46  Petersbo rough  St.  (1915). 

Although  Classical  Revival  designs  were  more  frequently  used  for 
institutional  buildings  in  The  Fenway,  residential  examples  of  their  style 
appear  throughout  the  survey  area.  '  The  Robert  Peabody  designed  townhouse  at 
26  The  Fenway,  is  an  interesting  severely  classical  building  (1902-1903).  The 
Classical  Revival  is  effectively  blended  with  the  Georgian  Revival  at  877 
Beacon  St.,  a  buff  brick  and  white  limestone  fronted  townhouse  with  a  curved 
facade  (1895).  Large  Classical  Revival  apartment  complexes  were  built  in  the 
east  and  west  Fens  during  the  1910 's  and  1920' s.   Particularly  noteworthy  is 
Silverman  Brown  and  Hienan's  111  Park  Drive  (1922)  with  its  monumental 
Corinthian  entrance  porch.   George  N.  Jacobs  designed  the  multi-unit  apartment 
buildings  at  61-69  Park  Drive  (1922).   These  these  buildings  feature 
attractive  corintian  columned  entrances. 

Six  large  apartment  buildings  with  vaguely  Mediterranean  characteristics 
appear  at  12-34  Medfield  St.,  near  Audubon  Circle.   Built  during  the  1910's, 
these  buildings  feature  planar,  white  painted  brick  surfaces,  wrought  iron 
balconies  and  red  tile  roofs. 

B.   Non-Residential 


Generally,  the  Gothic  Revival  is  the  predominant  ecclesiastical  style  in 
most  Boston  neighborhoods.   The  Fenway's  churches,  however,  embrace  a  variety 


of  architectural  modes  ranging  from  the  Romanesque,  Charles  Bateman  designed 
St.  Cecilias  Roman  Catholic  Church  (1889-1892)  to  the  Modern  Gothic  St. 
Clement  Church  at  1103  Boylston  St.,  designed  by  Allen  and  Collins  in 
1923-1924.   Frank  I.  Bemis  designed  the  original  First  Church  of  Christ 
Scientist  in  the  Romanesque  style  in  1893-1894.   The  Christian  Science  complex 
also  features  the  huge  domed  Renaissance  Revival  church  extention,  designed  by 
Charles  Brigham  with  S.S;  Bemis  (1904-1906).-  The  prominent  late  19th  century 
Boston  architectural  firm  of  Rotch  and  Tilden  was  responsible  for  the 
Victorian  Gothic  St.  Ann's  Catholic  Church  at  77  St.  Stephens  St. 
(1890-1892).  Also  noteworthy  is  James  Purden's  severly  Neoclassical  Revival 
church  of  the  Disciples  (now  the  Seventh  Day  Adventist  Church  and  School) 
which  was  built  in  1905.   The  Second  Church  in  Boston  or  the  Ruggles  St. 
Church  (together  with  its  Parish  House)  was  designed  in  1914  in  the  Georgian 
Revival  style  by  the  preeminent  early  20th  century  Modern  Gothic  Specialist 
Ralph  Adam  Cram  (874-876  Beacon -St.  at  Audubon  Circle).  Boston  theatre 
architect  Clarence  H.  Blackall  designed  the  marble  faced  Temple  Israel 
(presently  Boston  University's  Morse  Auditorium)  in  1905  at  612  Columbus  Ave. 

C,  Municipal 

The  former  Fire  Engine  House  No.  3  at  477  Brookline  Ave.  was  built  in  the 
Panel  brick  style  in  1873-1875  and  has  been  drastically  altered.  The  Back  Bay 
Fens  encompasses  several  interesting  municipal  structures  including  the  early 
1880' s  and  c.  1905  gate  houses  on  the  Fenway,  opposite  Forsyth  Way.   These 
rustic,  Roxbury  Pudding  Stone  constructed  buildings  were  designed  by  H.H. 
Richardson  and  Shepley,  Rutan  and  Coolidge,  his  successor  firm.  The 
Neoclassical  Fire  Alarm  Headquarters  Building  on  the  Fenway,  opposite  the 
Westland  Ave.  entrance  was  designed  in  the  Venetian  Renaissance  style  during 
the  mid-late  1920' s  by  William  Austen  and  landscape  architect  Arthur 
Shurcliffe.  ■ 

D.  Schools 

Noteworthy  Fenway  schools  include  the  Georgian  Revival  Farragut  School 
(1903)  in  the  Longwood  section  and  a  late  example  of  the  same  style  at 


85  Peterborough  St.  (1929,  George  Robinson).   The  same  style  was  used  for  the 
Boston  Public  Latin  School  on  Ave.  Louis  Pasteur  (1922;  James  E.  McLaughlin). 
The  Getting  School  for  Handicapped  Ghildren  was  designed  by  the  prominent 
Boston  architectural  firm  of  Peabody  and  Stearns  in  1903.  Architectural  firms 
responsible  for  the  Beaux  Arts  former  Girls'  Latin  and  Normal  Schools  (now 
Roxbury  Community  College)  at  Palace  Rd.,  Tetlow  St.,  and  Huntington  Ave.  were 
Peabody  and  Stearns;  Maginnis,  Walsh,  and  Sullivan;  and  Coolidge  and  Carlson 
(1906-1907).  The  Winsor  School  at  103  Pilgrim  Rd.  exhibits  Modern  Gothic 
elements  in  its  design  by  R,  Clipston  Sturgis  (1909-1910). 

E.   Institutional  Architecture 

The  Fenway  survey  area  possesses  an  unusually  rich  collection  of  cultural 
institutions  with  a  large  concentration  of  cultural  institutions  in  the  East 
Fens.  Medical  and  College  buildings  are  located  primarily  in  the  Longwood 
/Fenway  subarea.  By  far  the  Classical  Revival  style  is  the  predominant 
institutional  style. 

Cultural  Institutions  include  the  Guy  Lowell  designed  Boston  Museum  of 
Fine  Arts  (1907-1908),  the  McKim,  Mead  and  White  designed  Symphony  Hall 
(1899-1900)  and  the  Wheelwright  and  Haven  designed  Georgian  Beaux  Arts 
Horticultural  Hall  (1900-1903).  Edwin  Marsh  Wheelwright  was  responsible  for 
the  handsome  buff  brick  Massachusetts  Historical  Society  at  1154  Boylston  St. 
(1897-1899),  W.T.  Sears  designed  Isabella  Stewart  Gardner's  Venetian 
Rennaisance  fantasy,  Fenway  Court  in  1900.   The  Boston  Conservatory  of  Music 
was  designed  in  the  Renaisance  Revival  style  by  Wheelwright  and  Haven  in 
1901.   The  Tapestry  Brick  YMCA  at  312-320  Huntington  Ave.,  was  designed  by 
Shepley,  Rutan  and  Coolidge  in  1911. 

The  Forsyth  Dental  Center  echoes  the  nearby  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  Classical 

Revival  style.   It  was  designed  by  Edward  T.P.  Graham  in  1912-1914.   Further 

to  the  west  in  the  Longwood  subarea  noteworthy  medical  facilities  include  the 

original  Harvard  Medical  School  building,  designed  in  the  Classical  Revival 

style  in  1906  by  Shepley,  Rutan  and  Coolidge,  the  original  Peter  Bent  Brigham 

Hospital  building  (Codman  and  Despradelle,  1913)  and  the  old  Coolidge  and 

Shattuck  designed  Boston  Lying  In  Hospital  building  is  still  extant  at  300 

Longwood  Ave  (1921). 


College  buildings  worth  noting  include  several  Simmons  College  buildings 
including  Peabody  and  Stearns'  Administration  building  (1901),  and  a  Guy 
Lowell  designed  dormitory  at  312  Brookline  Ave  (1905).   Maginnis  and  Walsh 
designed  Emmanuel  College's  main  building  in  1913.   The  only  state  supported 
autonomous  art  school  in  the  nation  is  the  Massachusetts  College  of  Art,  a 
Modern  Gothic  and  Art  Deco  building  which  dates  to  late  1928. 

F.  Commercial 

Few  noteworthy  commercial  srtuctures  are  located  within  the  primarily 
residential  and  institutional  survey  area.  By  the  1920' s  a  number  of 
residential  buildings  were  beginning  to  be  converted  for  commercial  use, 
particularly  in  the  Kenmore  Square  area.   Solid  example  of  this  type  Include 
the  Classical  Revival  Building  at  78-88  Brookline  Ave.  (1916),  the  cast  stone, 
concrete  and  brick  former  Shawmut  Bank  branch  building  at  540-548  Commonwealth 
Ave.  (c.1925)  and  the  Andrews  Jacque  and  Rantoul  designed  Peerless  Motor  Car 
Company  buildings  at  648-660  Beacon  St., Kenmore  Square  (1910-1916). 

G.  Special  Use  Structures 

Intriguing  special  use  structures  Include  several  riding  club/schools 
e.g.  the  Jacobethan  New  Riding  Club  designed  by  William  T.  Sears  in  1891-1892 
on  Hemmenway  St.  and  The  Riding  School  designed  in  the  Queen  Anne  style  by 
Wheelwright  and  Haven  in  1900.  Also  noteworthy  is  the  Renaissance  Revival 
Edison  Electric  Illuminating  Co. -Transformer  Station  at  863  Beacon  St.  (1916, 
Bigelow  and  Wetherell)  and  the  huge  Art  Deco  Sears  Roebuck  and  Company  mail 
order  house  building  and  offices  at  309  Park  Drive  (1928).  Fenway  Park 
(1912),  with  some  later  additions,  remains  intact  as  an  early  example  of  a 
baseball  park. 

H.  Montunents 

Several  fine  examples  of  early  20th  century  civic  sculpture/architecture 
are  located  in  and  adjacent  to  the  Back  Bay  Fens.  Notable  examples  Include 
Daniel  Chester  French's  bronze  sculptural  figure  on  the  John  Boyle  O'Reilly 
monument  and  the  John  Endicott  statue  by  sculptor  Paul  Jannewein  on  Forsyth 
Way  and  the  Fenway.  The  architectural  setting  of  the  O'Reilly  monument  was 
designed  by  C.  Howard  Walker,  and  that  of  the  Endicott  monument  by  Ralph  Weld 
Gray  (1937). 





















>    b 




2    ^° 



The  Back  Bay  Fens 
(This  section  taken  from  Boston  Landmarks  Commission  Study  Report  on  the  Back 

Bay  Fens) 

On  Wednesday  evening,  June  7,  1876,  Boston  citizens  gathered  at  Faneuil 

Hall  to  endorse  the  recommendations  of  the  Park  Coiranissioners,  contained  in  a 

report  released  on  April  24,  1876,  for  a  system  of  parks  in  Boston.  Most  of 

the  attention  focused  upon  the  health  factors  of  open  space.  Dr.  Edward  Clark 

addressed  the  gathering  on  the 

"sanitary  aspect  of  the  park  . . .  Let  us  not  forget  that  a  park  laid 
out  in  accordance  with  the  plan  of  the  Park  Commissioners  will 
utilize  localities  that  would  otherwise  become  plague  spots  ... 
Portions  of  the  Back  Bay  . . .  are  sure  to  become  unhealthy  localities 
unless  they  are  preserved  and  left  unoccupied." 

Landowners  and  speculators,  realizing  that  the  continued  development  of 
the  Back  Bay  would  be  sjmied  without  a  solution  to  the  Fens  problem,  lobbied 
long  and  hard  in  the  City  Council  to  pass  a  bill  authorizing  funds  for  the 
park.  This  was  done  in  1877. 

In  deference  to  local  political  opinion,  a  competition  was  held  for 

plans.  Frederick  Law  Olmsted  declined  to  submit  or  to  judge  the  entries.  He 


"No  aid  I  could  give  in  the  selection  of  a  plan  to  receive  your 
premium  would  materially  lessen  either  class  of  objections  to  the 
competition,  which  I  have  indicated.   Advising  your  choice  I  should 
place  myself  in  a  leaky  boat  with  you.  Keeping  out  of  it  I  retain  a 
professional  position  in  which  it  is  possible  I  may  yet  be  of 
service  to  you."* 

Although  a  $500.00  prize  was  awarded  to  Hermann  Grundel,  his  plan  was 
inappropriate.  Even  though  the  Boston  park  commissioners  had  requested  a  park 
for  the  Back  Bay  they  needed,  instead,  a  solution  for  Stony  Brook  flood 
waters.  They  asked  Olmsted  to  prepare  a  plan.  Olmsted  accepted  this 
engineering  problem  as  the  dictating  factor  in  his  design  and  declared  that 
his  undertaking  not  be  aimed  at  anything  with  the  slightest  resemblance  to  an 
urban  park. 

*  Olmsted  to  Dalton,  May  13,  1878,  Olmsted  Papers,  Library  of  Congress, 
Washington,  D.C. 


Olmsted's  design  was  primarily  a  sanitary  improvement,  the  main  feature 
of  which  was  a  storage  basin  for  the  storm  waters  of  Stony  Brook.   A  second 
aim  was  to  restore  the  salt  marsh  to  its  original  condition,  (from  Zaitzevsky, 
Cynthia.   Frederick  Law  Olmsted  and  the  Boston  Park  System.   Harvard 
University  Press,  Cambridge.   1982.   p.  57.) 

Intercepting  sewers  were  to  be  constructed,  the  Muddy  River  would  be  diverted 
to  the  Charles  by  a  conduit,  and  the  ordinary  flow  of  Stony  Brook  carried  out 
by  a  similar  conduit.  The  flow  of  salt  water  in  and  out  of  the  30  acre  basin 
was  to  be  carefully  regulated.  During  times  of  flood,  approximately  twenty 
additional  acres  could  be  covered  with  water.*  Olmsted  created  a  salt  creek, 
bordered  by  salt  marshes,  and  enclosed  by  high  banks.  The  banks  were  covered 
with  wild  flowers,  compact  shrubs  and  vines,  grasses  and  trees  that  thrived  on 
salt  water. 

Olmsted  met  with  many  problems  while  building  the  park.  The  most  serious 
was  the  small  size  of  the  site.  Of  the  100  acres,  purchased  at  $450,000., 
half  was  committed  to  the  basin.  Only  50  acres  could  be  used  for  recreational 
purposes.  Along  this  land  Olmsted  developed  the  major  parkway  of  the  system, 
now  the  Fenway,  parallel  to  a  bridle  path.   "Several  city  streets  had  to 
traverse  the  park,  necessitating  the  construction  of  several  bridges."* 

An  engineer  of  the  Park  Commission,  Thomas  Doane,  had  superintended  the 
filling  in  and  laying  out  of  the  border  roads  around  the  Fens  site. 
Consequently,  through  no  fault  of  Olmsted's,  the  Fenway  roads  lack  attractive 
views  of  the  park. 

The  third  major  problem  Olmsted  faced  was  the  size  of  the  conduit  needed 
to  carry  Stony  Brook  overflow  directly  to  the  Charles  River.  Due  to  the 
expense  of  such  a  large  conduit,  a  smaller  one  was  decided  upon  by  the  City 
engineer.   Olmsted  compensated  by  making  the  Fens  basin  two  feet  lower  than 

The  Back  Bay  Fens  was  simple  by  design,  a  passive  park  made  up  of 
walkways  and  a  bridle  path.  Traffic  lanes  were  segregated  by  slight  grade 
changes  and  plantings.  Architecture  was  kept  to  a  minimum  and  what  exists  is 
low  key. 

Agassiz  Bridge  was  deliberately  kept  low  to  provide  a  long  view  of  the 
park,  and  Fenbridge  is  tucked  into  the  banks  of  Park  Drive  and  planted  so 


closely  as  to  be  nearly  invisible.   Even  the  enormous  Boylston  Street  Bridge 
never  intrudes  in  the  park  because  of  its  undulating  surface,  exact 
proportions  to  the  land  around  it,  and  earth  tone  granite  'facing.   The 
bridge's  great  arch  was  carefully  designed  to  be  a  window  on  the  Fens' from 
Commonwealth  Avenue,  inviting  visitors  into  the  park.  All  three  original 
bridges  are  barely  noticeable  on  the  roadways  and  appear  to  be  part  of  the 
landscape  from  the  park.  The  gatehouses  are  heavily  planted  to  also  be  as 
unobtrusive  as  possible. 

All  formal  elements  were  kept  to  the  edges  of  the  park  —  especially  the 
four  entranceways .  Reaching  out  like  arms  from  the  main  body  of  the  park, 
these  entranceways  connect  the  park  with  main  public  roadways:  Hungington 
Ave.,  Massachusetts  Ave.,  and  Brookline  Ave.  Olmsted  always  urged  that  main 
public  roadways  be  the  boundaries  of  his  parks  to  provide  easy  access  by  as 
many  people  as  possible.  In  the  Fens  the  high  price  of  land  made  this 
impossible  so,  in  a  clever  way,  Olmsted  extended  the  park  out  to  the 
thoroughfares  by  short  ribbons  of  parkland. 

The  Tremont  Entrance,  today  called  Evans  Way,  adjoins  the  Gardner 
Museum.   It  was  originally  planned  as  the  beginning  of  the  parkway  system.  A 
parkway  was  designed  to  extend  over  Parker  Hill  through  a  planned  park  on  that 
elevation  and  down  to  Jamaica  Pond.  Expensive  land  prices  scuttled  the  plan. 
On  December  30,  1887,  the  Boston  Park  Commission  voted  on  a  continuous  parkway 
from  the  Fens  to  Franklin  Park  using  the  Muddy  River  Valley.  The  Tremont 
Entrance  was  completed  as  planned  in  1893  to  Huntington  Ave.   It  served  as  an 
entrance  from  Tremont  St.  and  the  Mission  Hill  neighborhood. 

The  Muddy  River,  with  its  polluted  water  and  flooding,  brought  as  many 
problems  to  Brookline  as  Stony  Brook  did  to  Boston.   As  a  solution  to  their 
common  troubles,  Brookline  and  Boston  collaborated  on  the  Riverway  and 
Leverett  Park.  The  project  was  made  possible  by  the  Brookline  Park  Commission 
Chairman,  Charles  Sprague  Sargent. 

Sargent,  who  was  the  first  director  of  the  Arnold  Arboretum,  and  served 
in  this  capacity  for  over  fifty  years,  was  also  a  friend  and  neighbor  of 
F.L.  Olmsted.   Upon  assuming  the  newly  formed  position  of  chairman  of  the 
Brookline  Park  Commission  in  1830,  Sargent  turned  to  Olmsted  to  solve  the 


Muddy  River  problem.   Olmsted  submitted  his  first  plan  in  1882  and  $40,000  was 
appropriated  to  begin  land  taking.   Over  the  next  seven  years,  sufficient  land 
was  purchased  and  the  boundairy  line  between  Brookline  and  Boston  was  redrawn 
to  go  down  the  middle  of  the  new  waterway.  A  revised  plan  was  submitted, 
based  on  the  actural  amount  of  land  purchased,  the  the  Town  of  Brookline  on 
Jamuary  28,  1890.  Work  commenced  in  the  spring  of  1890, 

The  original  Muddy  River  Channel  was  completely  rebuilt  from  the 
meandering  stream  it  once  was.  An  1873  Boston  Atlas  shows  the  Muddy  River 
once  winding  through  what  is  today  Temple  Israel,  Wheelock  College  and  Simmons 
College,  and  exiting  to  the  Charles  River  through  present-day  Queens bury 

In  February,  1886,  Stony  Brook  flooded  63  acres  of  lower  Roxbury  causing 
extensive  damage  and  posing  serious  health  problems.  The  flooding  proved  that 
the  old  Stony  Brook  Conduit  of  1881  was  far  too  small. 

In  1887  a  twelve  by  twelve  foot  channel  was  built,  going  directly  from 
Roxbury  Crossing  to  the  Back  Bay  Fens.   The  sold  purpose  for  this  channel  was 
the  prevention  of  upstream  flooding  and  no  provision  was  made  for  foul  flow. 
The  work  at  the  Fens  was  completed  in  1889. 

The  widening  and  extension  of  Columbus  Avenue  and  the  extensive 
rebuilding  of  the  Boston  and  Providence  Railroad,  beginning  in  the  mid  1890' s, 
spurred  more  action  to  sufficiently  control  Stony  Brook.   In  1896,  work  began 
on  a  newer  and  much  larger  conduit  in  lower  Roxbury  called  the  Commissioners 
Channel.   The  conduit  stopped  at  Huntington  Avenue  in  1897  since  flood  control 
was  still  the  primary  concern.   Pollution  of  the  Fens  from  sewage  in  the 
channel  became  a  serious  problem  for  the  Park  Department  and  dredging  was 
carried  out  in  1898.  The  sludge  deposits  and  the  odor  from  the  Fens  prompted 
more  action  and  finally  in  September  of  1903,  a  foul  flow  channel  was  begun 
from  Huntington  Avenue  to  the  Charles  River.   This  was  an  extension  of  the 
1897  Commissioners  Channel.   A  new  gatehouse  was  built  in  1904  to  control  foul 
flow  and  the  original  Richardson  gatehouse  was  moved  under  a  new  substructure 


with  wider  gates.   Unfortunately  the  state  legislature  vetoed  a  plan  for  a 
separate  system  for  foul  and  clean  water  flow  and  for  a  larger  foul  flow 
channel;  the  state  wanted  to  keep  the  Harbor  water  as  pure  as  possible.   As  a 
result  only  a  seven  by  seven  foot  foul  flow  channel  was  built  under  the  new 
gatehouse,  despite  objections  by  the  chief  engineer  of  the  Sewer  Division. 

The  project  took  five  years  and  caused  the  digging  of  vast  trenches  down 
Huntington  Avenue  Entrance  and  out  the  Charles  River.   Over  100,000  cubic 
yards  of  sludge  was  dug  out  of  the  Fens  by  the  Park  Department  using  a  unique 
hydraulic  barge  which  carried  the  waste  out  to  sea.  Failure  to  build  a 
segregated  sewer  system  in  1904  has  resulted  in  sanitary  problems  for  the 

Misuse  and  overloading  had  caused  problems  almost  from  the  beginning  for 
the  tide  and  flood  control  system  carefully  worked  out  by  Olmsted  and  the  city 
engineer.  When  the  Charles  River  dam  was  completed  in  1910,  the  water  flowing 
into  the  Fens  from  the  Charles  was  fresh  instead  of  salt,  thus  rendering  the 
entire  design  obsolete.  The  dam  kept  the  Charles  River  Basin  at  a  constant 
level  of  fresh  water  and  the  tides  no  longer  washed  up  the  Fens  and  filled  in 
the  marshes.  The  marshes  were  no  longer  needed  and  soon  the  salt  water 
grasses,  trees,  and  shrubs  began  to  die  out.  As  the  marshes  were  filled  in, 
fresh  water  plantations  were  added,  although  original  willows  can  still  be 

The  three  large  marshes  in  the  southern  half  of  the  Fens,  just  below 
Agassiz  Road,  were  filled  in  stages,  just  prior  to  and  after  the  First  World 
War.  An  athletic  field  was  filled  in  1912  on  the  site  of  the  present  Roberto 
Clemente  Field  and  landscaped  between  1925  and  1928. 

The  Western  side  of  the  parkland,  or,  as  Olmsted  referred  to  the  banks  of 
the  marshland,  the  Fenside,  has  been  changed  beyond  recognition  from  its 
original  appearance. 

In  1911  the  eleven  acre  site  of  the  present  Victory  Gardens  began  to  be 
filled  in  order  to  build  a  recreation  field.-  As  money  became  available  during 


the  teens  of  the  20th  century,  the  flats  were  filled  in  by  the  Park 
Department,  shaping  the  land  mass  which  is  more  or  less  evident  today.   The 
Back  Bay  Fens  was  completed  in  1893  at  a  cost  of  $18,000,000.   However,  in  the 
years  that  followed  many  changes  took  place,  leaving  behind  little  of 
Olmsted's  original  design. 

In  1904,  Harvard  Medical  School  chose  a  site  on  Longwood  Avenue  for  its 
new  school  and  it  proposed  a  realignment  of  the  roadway  to  the  Fens  to 
accomodate  the  site.  This  was  agreed  upon  by  the  Park  Department  and  the  City 
Street  Department.  The  aptly  named  Avenue  Louis  Pasteur  was  built  in  1906. 

Other  changes  were  more  disruptive.  The  actual  site  of  the  infamous 
Sears  parking  lot  was  a  lovely  lagoon  crossed  by  a  handsome  stone  bridge  which 
carried  the  parkway  to  Park  Drive.  Both  bridge  and  lagoon  were  plowed  under 
in  1958-1959. 

The  construction  of  Boston  State  College's  new  building  (in  1984  the 
Massachusetts  College  of  Art  building)  blocks  forever  the  Tremont  Street/ 
Mission  Hill  connection  and  isolates  the  entranceway  into  an  island. 
Moreover,  the  enormous  height  of  the  Boston  State  building  is  a  visual 
intrusion  and  ruins  an  otherwise  fine  view  from  the  Boylston  Street  Bridge  of 
unobstructed  greenspace. 

The  largest  intrusion  into  the  Back  Bay  Fens  was  the  Bowker  Overpass, 
connecting  the  Fens  with  Storrow  Drive.   The  Bowker  construction  amputated  the 
Boylston  Street  Bridge,  obliterating  the  original  Olmsted  landscaping  of 
Charlesgate.  Bowker  Bridge  construction  also  destroyed  the  wall  of  a  metal 
bridge  which  carried  Audubon  Road  (now  Park  Drive)  over  the  Boston  and  Albany 
Railroad.  This  bridge  had  been  built  in  1893  from  Richardson's  plans  of  a 
decade  earlier.  Olmsted  himself  requested  the  plate  girder  deck  bridge  over 
the  railroad  and  Richardson  designed  it  in  crisp,  clean  lines  with  only  slight 
ornamentation.   The  metal  truss  bridge  was  essentially  a  wide  break  in  the 
stone  wall  which  continued  the  sweep  of  the  Boylston  Street  Bridge  around  to 
Commonwealth  Avenue,  almost  to  the  Hotel  Somerset.   The  railroad  bridge  was 
demolished  in  1964  for  the  Massachusetts  Turnpike  extension.   All  that  remains 
today  is  the  massive  central  masonry  support. 


In  1982  major  changes  were  again  introduced  to  the  Back  Bay  Fens: 

-  Agassiz  Road  was  narrowed  and  a  new  curb  and  sidewalk  installed. 

-  The  rotary  at  the  Westland  Avenue  Entrance  was  removed,  changing  the  pattern 
of  traffic  and  returning  some  land  to  park  use. 

-  The  southern  portion  of  The  Fenway  was  narrowed.  New  walks,  curbs  and  trees 
were  added. 

-  The  Boylston  Street  intersection  was  entirely  rebuilt.   In  addition  to  the 
relocation  of  the  John  Boyle  O'Reilly  statue,  new  walks  were  installed  and  The 
Fenway  widened. 

-  Boylston  Street  has  also  been  widened,  the  median  strip  removed  and  a  new 
traffic  pattern  to  the  Bowker  Overpass  put  into  effect. 

-  At  Fenway  West  a  residential  parking  lane  was  created  out  of  the  west  lane 
of  the  1925  roadway.   Park  land  was  added  at  the  gas  station,  at  the  corner  of 
Boylston  Street  and  The  Fenway. 

-  Residential  parking  was  also  added  in  the  Fenway  Southwest  section.  Here  a 
grade  change  of  traffic  lanes  also  occurred. 

The  Back  Bay  Fens  as  City  Planning 

One  of  the  main  groups  lobbying  for  the  Fens  construction  was  composed  of 
landowners  and  speculators  wishing  to  protect  their  Investment  in  the  Back  Bay 
development  and  exploit  its  grand  success.  Landowners  demanded  that  boundary 
roads,  facing  private  lots,  be  built  by  the  Parks  Department.  These  roads 
insured  access  to  the  property  which  began  to  be  built  upon  in  1892.  Land 
values  had  begun  to  rise  as  early  as  1882  due  to  the  control  of  the  Stony 
Brook  and  marsh. 

Unlike  the  Back  Bay,  the  Fens  could  not  simply  be  filled  over.   The  great 
flow  of  wataer  from  Stony  Brook  made  this  impossible.  Olmsted's  brilliant 
solution  permitted  the  growth  of  Boston  around  the  Fens. 

By  keeping  architecture  to  a  minimum  and  providing  for  only  passive 
recreation  the  Fens  remained  a  large  green  for  the  residential  blocks  which 
surrounded  it.   Such  a  layout  allowed  a  maximum  number  of  people  to  enjoy  a 
park  of  minimal  space. 


Boundary  roads  that  reached  house  lots  were  segregated  by  Olmsted  into 
residential  and  park  roads  so  that  visitors  could  get  the  most  out  of  their 
park.   The  several  entrances,  which  reached  out  like  arms  to  main  public 
throughways,  provided  easy  access  to  the  park.  Without  these  entrances  the 
park  would  have  been  completely  surrounded  by  private  property. 

The  entranceways  became  even  more  utilitarian  when  streetcar  lines  began 
operating  along  Huntington  Avenue  and  Brookline  Avenue.   For  years  the  Park 
Commissioners  wisely  resisted  attempts  to  put  a  streetcar  line  through  the 
park  along  Boylston  Street.  This  issue  was  resolved  with  the  construction  of 
the  Boylston  Street  subway  in  1912.   This  line  goes  under  the  watercourse  at 
Charlesgate,  midway  between  Commonwealth  Avenue  and  the  Boylston  Street 
Bridge,  and  is  100  feet  below  ground. 

Because  the  Fens  is  flat  Olmsted  had  to  use  two  design  techniques.  He 
moved  Agassiz  Road  somewhat  south  of  the  Westland  Avenue  entrance  to  prevent 
the  Avenue  from  becoming  a  high  speed  throughway  bisecting  the  Fens.  He  also 
placed  Boylston  Street  as  far  downstream  as  possible,  creating  a  gentle  curve 
in  the  road  before  it  crosses  the  Bridge. 

Development  of  residential  Back  Bay  insured  that  the  Fens  would  also 
remain  residential.   The  earliest  house  built  in  the  Fens  was  a  grand 
structure  near  the  Westland  Avenue  Gates:  number  48,  The  Fenway.   Constructed 
in  1892,  it  was  designed  by  Arthur  Darrell.  Number  22  was  built  by  and  for 
the  noted  architect  and  Park  Commissioner  Robert  S.  Peabody  in  1900.   Robert 
Treat  Paine  built  a  townhouse  for  himself  at  number  one  Queensbury  Street  at 
Park  Drive.   It  was  completed  in  1901.   The  building's  massive  brick  circular 
bay  faces  the  Agassiz  Bridge  and  makes  for  one  of  the  most  distinctive  houses 
in  the  Fens.  This  western  side  of  the  park  was  developed  much  later  and  for 
years  the  Paine  house  was  the  only  structure  on  that  side. 

The  Back  Bay  Fens  was  so  attractive  that  it  invited  institutions  to  build 
near  it.   In  1899,  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Society  Building,  designed  by 
Edmund  M.  Wheelwright,  was  built  at  1154  Boylston  Street  across  from  the 
O'Reilly  Memorial. 


In  1901  the  Boston  Medical  Library  was  built  at  nvimber  eight  The  Fenway. 
This  building  is  now  the  Boston  Conservatory  of  Music. 

Robert  Peabody  designed  the  first  building  of  Simmons  College,  built  in 
1902  on  a  large  tract  of  land  near  the  Gardner  Museum;  later  additions  came  in 
1916.  Emmanuel  College  was  built  in  1914  across  from  the  Longwood  Entrance. 

The  most  famouse  house  of  the  Fenway,  built  in  Fenway  Court  between  1899 
and  1903,  was  Isabella  Stewart  Gardner's.   Interestingly,  it  was  her  husband 
who  urged  that  they  move  out  of  their  crowded  Beacon  Street  home  to  the  new 
land  of  the  Fenway.  After  Jack  Gardner  died  in  1898,  Mrs.  Jack  purchased  the 
corner  lot  at  the  Tremont  Street  entrance.  A  familiar  site  from  the  Fens  is 
the  enormous  "Y"  formed  by  brick  chimneys  on  the  Fenway  facade  of  the  Museum. 
When  a  new  fireplace  was  added  to  the  Raphael  Room  in  1914,  Mrs.  Jack  had  the 
masons  form  the  chimneys  into  the  shape  of  a  "Y"  which  is  the  first  initial  of 
Isabella  in  Spanish. 

In  1905,  negotiations  took  place  between  the  trustees  of  the  Museum  of 
Fine  Arts  and  the  Park  Department  for  a  transfer  of  park  land  to  the  museum. 
The  trustees  wanted  a  rectangular  lot  which  was  made  when  the  Huntington 
Avenue  Entrance  was  rebuilt  in  1907. 

The  great  institutional  crush  on  the  Fens  was  probably  inevitable,  given 
the  vast  amount  of  land  now  opened  for  building  after  the  flooding  and 
pollution  problems  were  solved  by  Olmsted. 

The  Back  Bay  Fens  is  important  for  its  great  influence  on  the  growth  of 
Boston.   The  park's  significance  belies  its  size.   Part  of  the  significance  of 
the  Back  Bay  Fens  is  that  it  is  an  example  of  city  planning  on  a  par  with  the 
Back  Bay  plan  of  Arthur  Gilmore.  As  Louis  Mumford  wrote  in  1969:   "It  is 
impossible  to  write  a  history  of  city  design  or  landscape  architecture  in  the 
United  States  without  reference  to  the  Back  Bay  area." 


Audubon  Circle  sub-area 

Audubon  Circle  is  the  triangular  residential  area  adjacent  to  Brookline's 
eastern  boundary.   It  is  bounded  by  the  Boston  Railroad  Tracks/Massachusetts 
Turnpike  on  the  north,  the  Riverside  M.B.T.A.  line  and  Muddy  River  on  the 
south,  and  St.  Mary's  St.  (Boston  city  line)  on  the  west.  This  area  is 
bisected  east-west  by  Beacon  St.,  a-  160'  wide  extensioa  of  Beacon  Hill  and 
Back  Bay  Beacon  Streets  which  terminates  at  the  Chestnut  Hill 
Reservoir/Cleveland  Circle.  Audubon  Circle  (originally  Burlington  Circle)  is 
the  centerpiece  of  the  district.  Measuring  260'  in  diameter,  this  "Square"  is 
enframed  by  a  stylish,  harmonious  ensemble  of  primarily  red  brick  single 
family  row -houses  and  multi  unit  buildings  dating  from  1890-1915.   Presiding 
over  the  northeast  curve  of  Audubon  Circle  in  the  Ralph  Adams  Cram  designed 
red  brick  Second  Church  (1914).  The  church's  spire  is  the  area's  most  highly 
visible  landmark. 

During  the  17th  and  18th  centuries  this  area  was  part  of  Sewalls  Point,  a 
tributary  of  the  Charles  River  (south)  and  the  Charles  River  Basin  (north, 
east)  Topographically  Sewalls  point  encompassed  salt  marsh,  cow  pasture  and  a 
cedar  swamp.   Its  name  refers  to  the  famous  diarist  Salem  witch  craft  trial 
judge,  Samuel  Sewall.  His  farm  was  located  to  the  west  of  St.  Mary's  St. 

By  the  early  1820' s  Sewall 's  Point  was  more  closely  linked  to  Boston  via 
an  extension  on  Beacon  St.  which  ran  from  Charles  Sreet  to  Kenmore  Square.  As 
early  as  1814  the  present  route  of  Auburn  Circle  -  Brookline  Beacon  St.  was 
anticipated  on  Benjamin  Dearborn's  map  of  the  proposed  Mill  Barn.   By  the  mid 
19th  century  the  Longwood  and  Cottage  Farm  Estate  in  Brookline  of  David  Sears 
and  Amos  Abbott  Lawrence,  well-to-do  Beacon  Hill  Brahmins  included  the  Audubon 
Circle  area.  During  the  mid  1830' s,  the  Boston  and  Worcester  Railroad  were 
set  out  along  and  more  clearly  defined  the  northern  and  southern  edge  of  this 

Beacon  St.,  the  oldest  thoroughfare  in  the  area,  was  laid  out  as  a  50' 
wide  country  road  by  1851.   It  ran  from  Harvard  Street  to  the  Mill  Dam  at 


Keiimore  Square.   As  early  as  1866  Henry  M.  Whitney,  an  executive  in  the 
Metropolitan  Steamship  Co.,  began  buying  up  the  farm  land  bordering  Beacon  St. 
in  Audubon  Circle/Brookline  and  later  formed  a  syndicate  known  as  the  West  End 
Land  Co.,  buying  on  an  even  larger  scale.   The  Audubon  Circle  area  was  annexed 
from  Brookline  by  Boston  in  1870. 

In  1886,  Frederick  Law  Olmsted  was  hired  by  Mr.  Whitney  to  draw  up  plans 
for  transforming  Beacon  St.,  west  of  the  Boston  and  Albany  tracks  from  a  rural 
country  road  to  a  200'  wide  model  French  boulevard.   The  completed 
thoroughfare  measured  a  still-grand  160'  in  width.  Whitney  and  Olmsted 
envisioned  Beacon  St.,  west  of  Kenmore  Square,  as  a  logical  extension  of  the 
fashionable  Back  Bay  district  and  their  plans  enjoyed  a  remarkable  degree  of 
success.   In  1887  Whitney's  West  End  Rail  Road  Co.  put  an  electrified  street 
car  on  Beacon  St.  to  bring  customers  to  Wesj:  End  Land  Co.  properties.   In  the 
same  year  Park  Drive,  originally  Audubon  Road,  was  set  out  to  connect  Beacon 
St.  with  Olmsted's  main  park  system  beginning  near  the  Muddy  River.  Between 
c.  1890-1915,  Audubon  Circle  and  vicinity  was  developed  as  a  neighborhood  of 
well  designed  masonry  single  family  row  houses  and  three-six  family  apartment 
buildings  with  a  few  larger  multi  unit  structures. 

The  earliest  residential  development  in  the  Audubon  Circle  area  occured 
along  Beacon  St.,  near  the  eastern  and  western  edge  of  the  district. 
Initially-  housing  was  characterized  by  groups  of  single  family  red  brick  and 
brownstone  turned  bow  front  townhouses  exhibiting  elements  and  various 
combinations  of  the  Queen  Anne,  Romanesque  Revival,  Georgian  Revival  and 
Classical  Revival  style.   Notable  examples  include  918-924  Beacon  St.  (1889), 
822-836  Beacon  St.  (1890)  and  912-916  Beacon  St.  (1893).  During  the  mid 
1890 's  real  estate  speculaton  builders  such  as  Samuel  Shapleigh  and  Howard 
Coon  joined  forces  with  Samuel  D.  Kelley,  Arthur  Bowdith  and  other  Boston 
architects  (but  primarily  S.D.  Kelly)  to  build  row  houses  with  sophisticated 
detailing  comparable  to  contemporary  town  houses  in  the  Back  Bay. 
Particularly  noteworthy  is  the  Beacon  St.  streetscape  (south  side)  between 
Miner  St.  and  Audubon  Circle  including  845  and  847  (1892),  849-853  (1895), 
867-873  (1893),  875  (1894)and  877  Beacon  St.  (1895).   This  streetscape  also 
includes  the  Inverness  (1898)  at  857  Beacon  St.,  a  6-story  12-family 


apartment  building  which  was  a  harbinger  of  the  post  1900  trend  toward  multi 
unit  housing  in  this  area.   Later  examples  of  Audubon  Circle  row  housing  are 
located  in  the  southwest  corner  of  the  district.   Alternating  rows  of 
Jacobethan  and  Georgian  Revival  single  family,  three  story  townhouses  line 
Park  Drive,  Beacon  St.,  Keswick  St.  and  St.  Mary's  St.  Dating  to  the  early 
1900' s,  the  most  notable  example  is  the  group  at  899-909  Beacon  St.  The 
Flemish  gables  and  Hampton  -  court  like  tower  at  the  Park  Drive  -  Beacon  St. 
corner  contribute  greatly  to  Audubon  Circle's  uniqueness  as  an  urban  open 
space.  Good  examples  of  three  family  houses  include  the  Strath  Cena  (503-499 
Park  Drive)  and  the  Audubon  Terrace  (504-500  Park  Drive).  These  red  brick  and 
rock  face  brownstone  trimmed  Queen  Anne  -  Romanesque  buildings  serve  as  an 
attractive  "gate  way"  at  the  northern  approach  to  Audubon  Square.  Also 
noteworthy  is  the  Jacobethan/Classical  Revival,  three-family  building 
constructed  for  judge  Henry  S..  Dervey  in  1905  at  896  Beacon  St.  (northwest 
curve  of  Audubon  Circle) .  The  eastern  side  of  Park  Drive  between  the 
Riverside  line  and  Audubon  Circle  assesses  noteworthy  early  20th  century  multi 
family  houses,  most  notably  the  6-family  Arthur  Bowditch  designed  Italian 
Renaissance  Revival  structure  at  465  Park  Drive  (1896)  and  463,  461-459, 
457-455  Park  Drive.  Unlike  the  West  Fens,  lots  in  this  relatively  small,  com- 
pact area  were  not  ample  enough  to  accomodate  large  apartment  complexes.   The 
exception  to  this  rule  is  Audubon  Court,  a  large,  U-shaped  Jacobethan 
apartment  complex  at  514-522  Park  Drive  (1915). 

The  Second  Church  in  Boston  or  Ruggles  Church  is  the  most  important 
nonresidential  structure  in  the  sub-area  and  is  the  most  visible  landmark  on 
the  Audubon  Circle  horizon.   It  was  designed  in  the  Georgian  Revival  style  by 
Ralph  Adams  Cram,  the  preeminent  early  20th  c.  American  Gothic  church 
specialist,  in  1912-1914. 


Kenmore  Square 

For  the  purpose  of  this  survey,  the  Kenmore  Square  sub-area  is  bounded  by 
the  northern  side  of  Beacon  St.,  Between  Raleigh  and  Deerfield  Sts.,  Kenmore 
St.  on  the  east,  the  Massachusetts  Turnpike  on  the  south  and  Blandford 
St. /Commonwealth  on  the  west.  Kenmore  Square  was  originally  known  as 
Governor's  Square  and  was  developed  as  an  area  of  residential,  commercial  and 
light  industrial  facilities  between  c.  1890-1930.   During  this  period  Kenmore 
Square  became  an  important  transportation  center  on  the  western  edge  of  the 
Back  Bay  residential  district. 

Prior  to  the  19th  century  Back  Bay  land  fill  operations,  the  Kenmore 
Square  area  was  a  marshy  wasteland  at  the  tip  of  Sewall's  Point,  a  peninsula 
projecting  from  Brookline,  surrounded  by  the  waters  of  the  Charles  River 
basin.  By  the  early  1820' s  a  Mill  Dam/Turnpike  (later  Beacon  St.)  had  been 
constructed  from  Charles  and  Beacon  Sts.  to  what  is  now  Kenmore  Square.   In 
1835  the  Boston  and  Worcester  Railroad  (later  Boston  and  Albany  Railroad)  was 
laid  out  through  the  southern  portion  if  this  area.  Between  1860  and  1870  the 
area  from  Charlesgate  West  to  St.  Mary's  St.  (including  Kenmore  Square)  was 
partially  laid  out  .   In  1861  Brookline  Ave.  (originally  Brighton  Road) 
reached  from  Kenmore  Square  to  Brighton  and  by  1881  reached  Brookline.   The 
West  End  Street  Railway  Co.  provided  service  to  Kenmore  Square  by  1889.  The 
1890  atlas  indicates  the  area  as  still  devoid  of  structures  and  shows  two 
small,  triangular  grass  covered  plots  near  the  center  of  the  square  on  what  is 
now  the  bus  terminal. 

The  earliest  buildings  on  Kenmore  Square  is  the  group  of  Samuel  D.  Kelley 
designed  Queen  Anne  row  houses  at  510-522  Commonwealth  Ave.   Built  in  1892, 
several  of  these  single  family  structures  were  converted  for  commercial  and 
multl  unit  residential  use  as  early  as  the  1920' s.  Other  noteworthy 
residential  buildings  include  the  white  stone  fronted  single  family  town 
houses  at  506,  508  Commonwealth  Ave.  and  the  Jacobethan  Charlesvlew  apartment 
building  at  536  Commonwealth  Ave.  (c.  1910). 

In  addition  to  residential  properties,  this  area  became  a  center  for 
hotels,  with  half  a  dozen  examples  of  their  building  type  on  and  near  the 


square  by  the  1920' s.  The  first  Hotel  in  the  area  was  the  Hotel  Buckminster 
which  was  erected  c.  1900  and  designed  in  the  Beaux  Arts  and  Renaissance 
Revival  style.   This  massive   red  brick  and  granite  trimmed  structure,  with 
its  wide,  bowed  northeastern  corner,  dominates  the  Brookline  Ave., 
Commonwealth  Ave.,  Beacon  St.  intersection  on  the  southwestern  side  of  Kenmore 
Square.  The  completion  of  nearby  Fenway  Park  in  1911-1912  attracted  thousands 
of  baseball  fans  to  the  area  and  encouraged  commercial  construction  in  the 
area.   Between  1910-1916  three  large  office/garage  buildings  were  erected  in 
the  northern  side  of  Kenmore  Square  at  648-660  Beacon  St.  These  concrete  and 
cast  stone  buildings  were  designed  by  the  prominent  Boston  architectural  firm 
of  Andrew  Jacques  and  Rantoul  as  the  headquarters  of  the  Peerless  Motor  Co. 
As  early  as  1916,  a  sign  advertising  their  company  was  installed  on  the  site 
of  the  present  Citgo  sign.  This  sign  or  billboard  had  "electically  lighted 
letters  of  skeletal  type,  supported  on  an  angle  iron  frame." 

By  the  mid  1920' s  the  Kenmore  Square  area  was  almost  completely  built 
up;  a  relatively  late  addition  cast  stone  buildings  at  542-548  Commonwealth 
Ave.  Exhibiting  an  elaborately  decorated  main  facade  with  Renaissance  Revival 
and  Baroque  elements,  it  was  built  to  house  commercial  enterprises,  officers 
and  a  branch  of  thr  Shawmut  Bank  c.  1925.   In  addition  several  architecturally 
interesting  buildings  are  located  just  beyond  Kenmore  Square,  including  the 
marble  faced  Temple  Israel  at  612  Commonwealth  Ave.  (now  Boston  University's 
Morse  Auditorium).  Built  in  1905-1906,  it  was  designed  by  Boston  theatre 
specialist  Clarence  H.  Blackall.  The  Edison  Electric  Illuminating  Co. 
transformer  building  at  693  Beacon  St.  possesses  a  highly  academic  Italian 
Renaissance  granite  and  cast  stone  facade. 
It  was  designed  by  Bigelow  and  Wadsworth  in  1916  and  1917. 

Over  time  Kenmore  Square  residential,  commercial  and  light  industrial 
building  stock  has  been  adapted  for  a  variety  of  uses.  Boston  University,  and 
the  now  defunct  Graham  Junior  College  have  used  townhouses  and  hotels  in  the 
area  for  dormitories.   Industrial  buildings  are  now  being  used  to  house 
various  institional  functions,  houses  have  been  converted  into  apartments  and 
the  commercial  buildings  have  had  their  storefronts  modernized  to  attract  and 
cater  to  the  college  community. 


Since  1965  the  Citgo  sign,  a  fine  and  locally  very  rare  example  of  the 
spectacular  neon  display,  has  served  as  Kenmore  Square's  major  geographically 
orientating  device.   Perched  high  on  top  of  660  Beacon  St.,  the  Citgo  sign 
represents  a  less  energy  conscious,  highly  automobile  dominated  period  in 
American  cultural  history. 


West  Fens/Fenway  Park 

The  West  Fens/Fenway  Park  represents  the  most  recent  development  in  the 
survey  area.   It  is  generally  bounded  by  the  Boston  and  Albany  Railroad  tracks/ 
Massachusetts  Turnpike  on  the  north,  the  winding  path  of  Park  Drive  and  the 
Back  Bay  Fens  on  the  east  and  south  and  the  Riverside  M.B.T.A.  tracks  on  the 
west.  The  portion  of  the  disrtict  south  of  Boylston  St.  was  almost  entirely 
developed  as  a  residential  disrtict  of  large  apartment  complexes  between 
1915-1931.   To  the  north  of  Boylston  St.  is  a  post-1900  commercial  light 
manufacturing  district  which  contains  Fenway  Park.  The  West  Fens  is  situated 
on  level,  partially  filled  land  that  was  characterized  by  marsh  and  pasture 
lands  bordering  the  Muddy  River  prior  to  the  mid  19th  century.  Park  Drive, 
originally  Audubon  Road,  appears  on  Olmsted  plans  of  the  late  1870' s  and  was 
laid  out  during  the  early  1880' s.  By  1887  Park  Drive  had  been  extended  to 
Audubon  Circle/Beacon  St.  Back  Bay  Land  Co.  plans  indicate  that  the  streets 
between  Park  Drive  and  Boylston  St.  (Peterborough,  Queensberry,  Jersey  St., 
etc.)  were  laid  out  during  the  mid  1890' s.  Unlike  the  East  Fens,  which  were 
extensively  developed  beginning  c.  1880,  the  first  building  in  the  West  Fens 
was  not  constructed  until  1899.   In  that  year  Charles  K.  Cummings  designed  the 
red  brick,  Georgian  Revival  Mansion  at  1  Queensberry  St.  for  Robert  T.  Paine 
Jr.  Paine  apparently  expected  the  West  side  of  the  Back  Bay  Fens  to  develop 
as  an  elegant,  mirror  image  of  the  town  house  lined  eastern  side  of  the  Park. 
Despite  proximity  to  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  Symphony  Hall  and  Gardner 
Palace,  the  Paine  house  remained  virtually  a  solo  performance  until  1910.  The 
other  residential  properties  in  the  area  built  during  the  early  1900' s  are  the 
mansard  crown  Queen  Anne/Georgian  Revival  town  house  designed  by  and  for 
Boston  architect  Theodore  M.  Clark  at  107  Park  Drive  (corner  Jersey  St.)  and 
the  A.L.  Darrow  designed  row  of  restrained,  tan  brick  town  houses  at  22-32 
Peterborough  St.  (1903). 

By  1910,  the  West  Fens  had  caught  the  eye  of  real  estate  speculator  - 
developers  and  for  the  next  20  years  this  area  was  the  scene  of  fairly  large, 
modestly  priced  apartment  complex  construction.   These  adjoining  multi  unit 
structures  were  oriented  to  the  Back  Bay  Fens  and  were  very  similar  in  style 
to  the  apartment  structures  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  Fens.   Early  well 


designed  examples  of  these  apartment  complexes  include  the  thirty  one  family, 
Georgian  Revival  Peterborough  Chambers  at  133  Peterborough  St.  and  the  terra 
cotta  faced,  16-family  Jacobethan/Georgian  Stuart  and  Sumner  at  35-45,  36-46 
Peterborough  St.  (near  Jersey  St.).   The  U-shaped  Stuart  and  Sumner  with  their 
landscaped,  recessed  courts  were  designed  by  George  N.  Jacobs  in  1915. 
Particularly  noteworthy  is  the  undulating  "wall"  of  yellow  brick  and  cast 
stone  apartment  buildings  bordering  Park  Drive  from  Queensberry  to  Ki-lmarnok 
Streets.  Built  during  the  early  1920' s  and  exhibiting  elements  of  the 
Georgian  Revival,  Beaux  arts  and  Classical  Revival  styles,  these  multi  unit 
structures  include  61-69,  73-95,  111,  117-121  and  125-151  Park  Drive. 

Noteworthy  non-residential  buildings  between  Park  Drive  and  Boylston  St. 
include  the  austere,  red  brick  Neo  Classical  church  of  the  Disciples  designed 
by  James  Purdon  at  105  Jersey  St.  (corner  of  Peterborough  St.,  1905)  and  the 
chastely  designed  Martin  Milmore  School  at  85  Peterborough  St.  which 
represents  the  work  of  George  Robinson  (1929). 

The  streets  between  Boylston  St.  and  the  Riverside  M.B.T.A.  tracks,  with 
the  notable  exception  of  Brookline  Ave.,  were  laid  out  during  the  1890' s. 
Brookline  Avenue  dates  to  at  least  the  early  19th  century  and  was  known  as 
"the  road  to  the  punch  bowl  Tavern"  or  "Punch  Bowl  Road". 

Running  from  a  hamlet  on  the  Muddy  River  in  Brookline,  this  thoroughfare  was 
extended  to  what  is  now  Kenmore  Square  in  1861.   In  1868  it  was  formally  laid' 
out  and  received  its  present  name.   The  streets  to  the  north  of  Boylston  St. 
are  lined  with  post  1900  masonry  light  manufacturing,  commercial,  warehouse 
and  garage  structures.   Surviving  from  the  earliest  phase  of  its  development 
are  Eben  Jordan's  Wheelwright  and  Haven  designed  Riding  Stables  at  145-151 
Ipswich  St.   Conveniently  located  near  Kenmore  Square  transportation 
facilities  is  the  Fenway  baseball  park  which  it  opened  its  doors  on  April  20, 
1912  (24  Yawkey  Way,  formerly  Jersey  St.).  Prominently  sited  on  a  corner  lot 
across  the  street  from  Fenway  Park,  is  the  commercial  Classical  Revival 
Richardson  Building  at  5-15  Yawkey  Way  and  76-88  Brookline  Ave. (1916).   The 
most  visible  structure  an  the  West  Fens  skyline  is  the  tower  of  the  huge  Art 
Deco  Sears  and  Roebuck  commercial/office  building  which  was  designed  by 
Charles  Nimmon  and  Co.  of  Chicago,  Illinois  in  1928. 


East  Fens  and  vicinity 

The  dresent-shaped  area  considered  in  this  study  as  the  East  Fens 
sub-area  is  generally  bounded  by  the  Boston  and  Albany  tracks  on  the  north, 
Dalton  Street  on  the  east,  the  Christian  Science  Center,  St.  Botolph  Street, 
and  Huntington  Avenue  on  the  south,  and  the  Fenway  on  the  east. 

Developed  as  part  of  the  later  phase  of  the  extensive  Back  Bay  land  fill 
operations  during  the  1880' s,  the  East  Fens  area  began  to  be  built-up  with 
single  family  row  housing.  Although  the  East  Fens  was  developed  through  fill 
activity,  a  peninsula  known  as  Gravelly  point  jutted  into  the  marshy  Back  Bay 
from  Roxbury  and  exists  today  as  the  area  roughly  enclosed  by  Hemenway  and 
Dalton  Streets.  As  early  as  the  1830' s.  Gravelly  Point  was  the  site  of  mills 
and  foundries  established  in  connection  with  mill  and  cross  dam  operations  in 
Back  Bay,  and  several  brick  and  frame  industrial  structures  remained  in  the 
area  around  Hemenway  and  Norway  Streets  into  the  1890 's  while  much  of  the 
surrounding  vicinity  was  being  developed  into  a  residential  district  included 
the  new  homes  of  several  prestigious  cultural  and  educational  institutions. 

The  earliest  residential  development  in  the  East  Fens  area  occured  in  the 
early  1870' s  just  south  of  Gravelly  Point  along  Parker  Street  in  the  vicinity 
of  today's  Huntington  Avenue.  Of  the  modest  mansard  rows  that  were  built  in 
this  location,  only  the  four  houses  at  #220-26  Hemenway  (near  Fencourt  Street) 
have  survived. 

Subdivision  and  development  of  the  East  Fens  district  in  the  1880' s 
quickly  transformed  the  new  lands  into  residential  streets.   Although  West 
Chester  Park  (now  Massachusetts  Avenue)  was  part  of  the  regular  grid  of  the 
Back  Bay  district,  the  street  pattern  in  the  East  Fens  was  predominantly 
determined  on  its  western  edge  by  the  curvilinear  contours  of  Olmsted's  Back 
Bay  Fens,  and  in  the  heart  of  the  area,  by  the  alignment  of  early  streets  on 
Gravelly  Point  that  were  laid  out  at  right  angles  to  Parker  Street  (now 
Hemenway),  an  1870' s  extension  of  a  17th  century  Roxbury  road  which  was  cut 
through  across  Gravelly  Point  laid-out  over  the  cross  dam  and  its  causeway. 


Around  the  mid-1880' s.  West  Chester  Park  and  the  streets  in  its  immediate 
surroundings  began  to  develop  with  row  housing.   Although  few  of  these 
residences  remain  along  Massachusetts  Avenue,  several  Queen  Anne  and  Georgian 
Revival  rows  dating  from  this  early  development  period  are  located  on  St. 
Stephens  Street  and  Symphony  Road.   The  most  notable  of  these  are  #38-56  and 
37-57  St.  Stephens  (Peabody  and  Stearns,  architects)  and  #4-8,  10-22  and  3-15 
Symphony  Road.  Multiple  unit  buildings  also  were  being  put  up  at  this  time, 
and  the  Romanesque  Revival  block  at  #23-27  St.  Stephens  and  #1-1A  Symphony 
Road  is  representative  of  the  1880' s  4-family  housing  in  the  area. 

By  the  early  1890' s  the  frontage  facing  out  onto  the  Back  Bay  Fens  began 
to  develop  with  substantial  single-family  housing  which  by  the  turn-of-the- 
century  included  #52-54  The  Fenway,  Hartwell  and  Richardson,  architects 
(1895),  the  S.V.R.  Thayer  House  at  28  The  Fenway,  A.W  Longfellow,  architect 
(1896),  and  #22-24,  and  26  The  Fenway  dating  between  1900  and  1903  and 
designed  by  Peabody  and  Steams.  At  this  same  time,  row  houses  for  a  less 
affluent  class  were  being  developed  in  the  East  Fens  by  speculators  and  #12-30 
Edgerly  Road  (1893)  an  d#8-36  and  #15-25  St.  Germain  remain  as  notable  and 
intact  examples  of  the  more  modest  row  housing  in  the  sub-area. 

Multiple-unit  residential  buildings  including  3  and  4-family  houses, 
hotels,  apartment  hotels  and  large-scale  apartment  buildings  became  an 
important  housing  type  beginning  in  the  late  1890' s.  Three  and  four  family 
houses  repeat  in  form  and  scale  the  appearance  of  Back  Bay  town  houses  and 
were  built  in  stretches  along  several  streets  in  the  district. 
Of  these  groupings  of  three-  and  four-family  brick  housing  characteristic  of 
pockets  of  the  East  Fens,  #38-56  and  27-65  St.  Germain  (1895-98)  and  #76-110, 
65-115  Gainsborough  and  114-120  Hemenway  (1900-03)  remain  relatively  intact, 
although  these  have  been  or  are  in  process  of  considerable  interior 

Larger-scale  apartment  development  predominated  in  the  area  especially 
along  The  Fenway  between  Westland  Avenue  and  Forsyth  Park,  along  Westland 
Avenue,  on  the  even  side  of  Huntington  west  along  Gainsborough,  and  in  the 
Haviland,  Burbank,  and  Norway  Street  area  beginning  in  the  1910' s  and 
continuing  through  the  1920' s.   Architectually  notable  examples  of  hotels  and 


apartment  building  development  in  the  Ekst  Fens  includes  the  Carlton  Hotel  at 
1138  Boylston  Street,  Arthur  H.  Bowditch,  architect  (1901-02),  the  Georgian 
Revival  apartment  hotel  at  91  Westland  (1900),  the  Beaux  Arts  building  at  #114 
The  Fenway,  (1912-13),  the  Beaux  -  Arts  block  at  1109  and  1111  Boylston  St. 
and  64  Charlesgate  East  (1914),  the  terra  cotta  fronted  buildings  at  80  and  84 
The  Fenway,  (1914),  the  Federal  Revival  Students  House  at  96  The  Fenway, 
Kilham  and  Hopkins,  architects  (1913-14),  and  the  three  Classical  Revival 
apartment  buildings  at  66-74  The  Fenway  (1924). 

Major  cultural  institutions  established  themselves  in  the  East  Fens  or 
relocated  to  the  area  from  in-town  locations  beginning  in  the  1890' s.  During 
the  following  two  decades  the  area  included  along  its  major  frontages  of  The 
Fenway,  Huntington  Avenue,  and  Massachusetts  Avenue  -  The  Massachusetts 
Historical  Society  at  1154  Boylston,  c.  The  Fenway  (1897-99),  the  Boston 
Medical  Library,  8  The  Fenway,  now  the  Boston  Consrvatory  of  Music  (1899-1901), 
Symphony  Hall  (1899-1900),  Horticultural  Hall  (1900-01),  New  England 
Conservatory  of  Music  (1901-03),  Boston  Opera  House,  formerly  at  353 
Huntington,  c.  Opera  Place  (1909-10;  demolished  1953),  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts 
(1907-28)  and  the  YMCA  at  312-320  Huntington  Avenue  (1911-13). 

Religious  buildings  located  in  the  East  Fens  include  St.  Cecilia's  Church 
at  20  Belvidere  Street,  the  first  Roman  Catholic  Church  in  the  Back  Bay /Fenway 
area,  Charles  J.  Bateman,  architect  (1888-1892),  St.  Ann's  Roman  Catholic 
Church,  77  St.  Stephens  Street,  originally  built  as  the  Protestant  Episcopal 
Church  of  the  Messiah,  Rotch  and  Tilden,  architects  (1890-02),  and  St. 
Clements  Roman  Catholic  Church,  1103  Boylston  Street,  originally  built  as  the 
Universalist  Church  of  the  Redemption,  Allen  and  Collens,  architects 
(1923-24),  The  First  Church  of  Christ  Scientist,  the  Mother  Church  of  the 
Christian  Science  faith  built  in  1893-94  was  substantially  enlarged  ten  years 
later  with  a  Renaissance  Revival  extension  designed  by  Charles  Brigham. 

By  the  turn-of-the-century,  Massachusetts  Avenue  started  to  acquire  its 
present  day  character  as  the  main  commercial  street  in  the  area.   The  Back  Bay 
branch  of  the  State  Street  Bank  was  built  at  130-32  Massachusetts  Avenue  in 


1902,  and  by  the  1910' s  residential  buildings  along  the  thoroughfare  began  to 
be  remodeled  and  replaced  by  stores  and  offices.   This  redevelopment  process 
also  affected  Huntington  Avenue,  and  several  of  its  stately  apartment  blocks 
were  altered  for  ground  floor  retail  and  commercial  uses. 

Institutional  development  in  the  East  Fens  and  its  vicinity  continues 
into  the  present  day,  and  is  demonstrated  most  dramatically  by  the  building-up 
since  the  1930' s  of  the  Northeastern  University  campus  along  Huntington  Avenue 
and  around  Forsyth  Way  and  Opera  Place  and  by  the  completion  of  the  Christian 
Science  Center  which  began  to  develop  in  the  first  years  of  this  century  and 
which  by  the_1970's  occupied  a  15  acre  site,  much  of  which  replaced  an 
1880's-90's  neighborhood  of  three  and  four-story  red  brick  residential 



In  this  survey,  the  boundary  of  the  Fenway-Longwood  sub-area  extends  from 
the  intersection  of  Louis  Prang  St.  and  Huntington  Avenue  to  the  southwest 
along  Huntington  Avenue,  turning  to  the  north  at  the  Muddy  River  (Brookline 
boundary) .  From  here  it  follows  the  curving  path  of  the  Riverway  to  the 
Fenway,  then  southeast  returning  to  Huntington.  Major  streets  running  through 
the  area  are  Brookline  Avenue  (southwest/northeast)  and  Longwood  Avenue 
( southeast /northwest ) .  Other  streets  within  the  sub-area  are  generally 
parallel  with  these  two.  However,  a  grid  street  pattern  is  not  evident  here 
due  to  the  presence  of  numerous  one  to  two  block  long  streets,  "T" 
intersections,  and  institutional  uses  of  large  land  areas. 

In  terms  of  Its  topography  the  sub-area  is  largely  flat,  with  a  rise  from 
Longwood  Avenue,  and  the  Riverway  upward  to  Francis  St.,  cresting  just 
southeast  of  Binney  St. 

Open  space  dedicated  to  public  park  land  exists  at  the  sub-area 
boundaries  along  the  Riverway  (Muddy  River)  and  along  the  Fenway  with  the  Back 
Bay  Fens  as  part  of  Boston's  Olmsted-planned  "Emerald  Necklace."  The  small 
Elliot  P.  Joslin  Park  (formerly  Longwood  Park)  is  found  between  Brookline 
Avenue,  Pilgrim,  Joslin,  and  Deaconess  Roads. 

In  addition  to  park  land,  considerable  open  space  exists  in  the  Fenway  - 
Longwood  area  as  a  result  of  the  presence  of  several  educational 
institutions.   Along  The  Fenway  are  Emmanuel  and  Simmons  Colleges,  both  of 
which  have  landscaped  campuses.  Avenue  Louis  Pasteur  contains  spacious 
settings  for  Boston  Latin  and  English  High  Schools.  Harvard  Medical  School's 
original  complex  of  white  marble  Classical  Revival  buildings  are  formally 
arranged  around  a  large,  grassy  quadrangle  opening  onto  Longwood  Avenue  at 
Avenue  Louis  Pasteur. 

At  the  present  time,  the  area  primarily  characterized  by  the  large-scale 
use  of  educational  and  medical  facilities,  with  a  residential  pocket  between 
Francis  St.,  Huntington  Avenue, and  the  Riverway.   Some  commercial  uses  are 
found  along  Huntington  and  Brookline  Avenue.   Institutional  expansion  and  its 


parking  needs  continue  to  reduce  the  number  of  buildings  extant  from  the 
area's  early  development  period  (late  19th  -  early  20th  century). 

The  Fenway-Longwood  sub-area  was  part  of  the  town  of  Roxbury  (in  Norfolk 
County)  until  Roxbury  was  annexed  to  Boston  in  1868.   Development  in  the 
sub-area  was  sparse  until  late  in  the  19th  century.   Portions  were  covered  in 
marshes  of  the  Muddy  River  and  Stony  Brook.  Early  streets  in  this  region 
included  Tremont  (its  portion  southwest  of  Francis  St.  is  now  part  of 
Huntington  Avenue).   Francis  St.  was  laid  out  by  1832,  as  was  Brookline 
Avenue.  Longwood  Avenue  was  in  place  in  1857.   A  cluster  of  streets  present 
in  1852  near  Francis  and  the  Mill  Dam  Road  (now  Brookline  Avenue)  included 
Binney,  Cedar  (now  Pilgrim),  Oak  (now  Autumn),  Longwood  St.  (now  part  of  The 
Riverway),  Park  St.  (now  Deaconess),  and  Elm  (now  part  of  Longwood  Avenue). 
Appleton  Place  (now  Short  St.  &  Pilgram)  had  also  been,  laid  out. 

By  1873,  large  sections  of  the  Fenway  -  Longwood  sub-area  remained 
undeveloped,  particularly  from  Brookline  Avenue  and  Longwood  Avenue 
southeastward.  Exceptions  were  several  detached  frame  houses  on  the  northeast 
side  of  Longwood  Avenue,  in  the  vicinity  of  present-day  Avenue  Louis  Pasteur,. 
Another  residential  section  was  found  in  the  area  just  east  of  Brookline 
Avenue,  between  Fancis  St.  and  Longwood  Avenue.   In  addition  to  the  dominant 
frame  structures,  brick  row  houses  were  located  on  Brookline  Avenue  (from 
Francis  to  Peabody  Strs.)  and  on  Peabody  (from  Brookline  Avenue  to  Binney  St.). 
A  brick  school  stood  at  the  northeast  corner  of  Francis  and  Binney  Sts. 

Further  detached  frame  residential  development  in  1873  was  found  along 
Maple  Avenue  (now  Pilgrim  Road),  Appleton  Place  (now  Short  St.),  and  Brookline 
Avenue.   This  neighborhood  had  been  a  parcel  owned  by  L.  Pope  and  N.H.  Emmons 
in  1845.   Lot  sizes  shown  in  an  1845  plan  ranged  from  15,000  to  40,000  square 
feet,  with  some  extending  to  Longwood  Stream.  The  earliest  extant  structure 
in  the  sub-area  is  the  house  at  4  Short  st.  (ca.  1850),  a  frame  Italianate 
style  dwelling  with  3  bay  front  facade  and  gable  end  walls.   Its  neighbor,  an 
Italianate/Stick  Style  house  (ca.  1875)  provides  the  only  other  example  of  an 
early  residence  in  the  sub-area.   Both  houses  are  now  part  of  Simmons 
College's  residential  campus. 


The  Ebenezer  Francis  estate  of  over  20  acres  was  at  Tremont  and  Francis 
Streets,  extending  to  Longwood  Avenue  and  present-day  Vining  &  Blackfan  Sts. 
Francis'  heirs  were  owners  of  the  estate  in  1873;  they  also  owned  other  tracts 
northeast  of  Longwood  Avenue.  Other  large  estates  were  located  along  Tremont 
southwest  of  Francis  St.  The  Catholic  House  of  the  Good  Shepard,  with  its 
large  brick  building  and  surounding  land  of  385,070  sq.  ft.  stood  at  the  site 
of  the  present  modern  Mission  Park  housing  development.  Further  southwest  was 
the  Catherine  D.  Hancock  estate. 

Small  lots  with  detached  frame  dwellings  were  found  lining  Downer  St.  No 
longer  extant,  this  street  was  parallel  with  Brookline  Avenue,  just  inside  the 
Boston/Brookline  boundary.   By  1873,  Longwood  Park  (now  Joslin  Park)  was  in 

Before  the  implementation  of  Olmsted's  plan  for  the  Riverway  and  Fenway, 
the  area  northeast  of  Longwood  Avenue  was  partially  covered  in  creek  and  marsh 
lands.   Industrial  uses  existed  along  the  northeast  side  of  Longwood  Avenue, 
near  its  present  intersection  with  Huntington  Avenue.   Three  buildings  of  a 
floor  oil  cloth  manufacturing  stood  on  a  large  land  parcel  which  extended  to 
the  water's  edge.  Further  to  the  northwest  on  Longwood  Avenue  was  a  currying 
works . 

Between  the  years  1873  and  1890,  little  additional  development  had 
occurred  in  the  Fenway-Longwood  sub-area.  By  1875,  the  Panel  Brick  style  fire 
station  at  Longwood  and  Brookline  Avenues  was  built.   It  remains  standing 
today  in  commercial  use,  with  drastic  alterations.   The  Massachusetts  Home  for 
Intemperate  Women,  a  brick  structure,  was  standing  at  Binney  and  Smyrna  Sts. 
(now  Deaconess  Road) . 

Huntington  Avenue  had  been  extended  to  Francis  St.  in  1882,  and  some 
construction  had  taken  place  along  it  by  1890.  Notable  extant  buildings  are 
the  brick  "Elsie"  and  "Ormonde"  apartment  buildings  at  641  and  643  Huntington 
Avenue  (1888),  which  feature  Richardsonian  Romanesque  and  Classical 
ornamentation.   A  few  other  brick  row  houses  and  the  Martin  School  also  had 
been  erected  on  Huntington.   However,  the  area  between  Huntington  Avenue,  The 
Fenway,  and  its  Tremont  and  Huntington  entrances  remained  undeveloped  in  1890. 


Layout  of  the  Fenway  and  Riverway  in  the  late  1880' s  brought  new  development 
opportunities  with  them. 

Many  changes  in  the  development  character  of  the  Fenway-Long wood  sub-area 
took  place  around  the  turn-of-the-century .   Housing  development  accelerated 
southwest  of  Francis  St.  as  large  land  parcels  were  subdivided  and  the  new 
streets  of  Kenwood  (now  Fenwood) ,  Crowley  (now  St.  Albans),  and  Kempton 
were  laid  out.  House  lots  were  rapidly  developed  with  frame,  detached  2  and 
3-family  dwellings.  Nearly  all  of  the  lots  had  been  built  upon  by  1906, 
Kempton  St.  was  lined  with  brick  row  housing.  A  notable  concentration  of 
those  frame  houses  remains  today.  Realtor  Jeremiah  C.  Spillane  was  the 
developer  for  many  of  the  handsome  Colonial  Revival  2-family  residences  and 
triple-deckers  along  Francis  St.  and  Fenwood  Road  (extant  examples  include  50 
and  58  Francis,  4,  11,  15,  and  40  Fenwood  Rd.).   Spillane 's  real  eatate  office 
was  located  nearby  at  Huntington  and  Francis  from  1899  to  1906.  The  Farragut 
School  (10  Fenwood),  a  brick  Georgian  Revial  structure,  was  designed  by 
Wheelwright  and  Haven  and  built  in  1903. 

It  was  early  in  the  20th  century  that  the  Fenway-Longwood  sub-area  began 
taking  on  its  present  character  as  a  principal  site  for  educational  and 
medical  institutions.  Venetian-inspired  Fenway  Court,  the  Isablla  Gardner 
Museum  (architect  W.T.  Sears),  completed  in  1903,  had  the  distinction  of  being 
the  first  building  along  the  Fenway  (#280).   Simmons  Female  College  acquired 
property  nearby  and  in  1904  moved  into  its  newly  finished  Classical  Revival 
building  (300  The  Fenway)  designed  by  Peabody  and  Stearns.   Sinmions'  first 
dormitory  was  built  in  1905  at  321  Brookline  Avenue,  a  Georian  Revival  building 
by  architect  Guy  Lowell. 

Harvard  University's  Medical  School  held  dedication  ceremonies  for  its 
complex  of  Classical  Revival  white  marble  buildings  in  September  of  1906. 
The  University  Trustees'  purchase  of  a  large  section  of  the  Francis  estate 
included  vacant  land  set  aside  for  future  hospital  use.   By  1906,  Children's 
Hospital  owned  the  vacant  parcel  adjacent  to  the  nortwest  side  of  the  Medical 
School.   Planning  for  the  school  was  underway  by  1900,  with  the  architectural 
firm  of  Shepley,  Rutan,  and  Coolidge  as  designer. 


Other  medical  facilities  were  moving  into  the  area,  such  as  the  New 
England  Deaconess  Home  and  Training  School  (175  Pilgrim  Rd,  built  in  1903). 
Harvard's  Dental  School  building  (Shepley,  Rutan,  and  Colidge,  architects)  at  ■ 
188  Longwood  was  erected  1908-1909. 

The  City  of  Boston  chose  a  site  on  Huntington  Avenue  for  its  new  Girls' 
Latin  and  Normal  Schools,  commissioning  prominent  architectural  firms  for 
their  design.   Coolidge  and  Carlson;  Peabody  and  Stearns;  and  Maginnis,  Walsh, 
and  Sullivan  were  responsible  for  a  handsome,  formal  complex  of  Beaux-Arts 
buildings.  Erected  in  1906-1907,  some  of  these  remain  as  part  of  Roxbury 
Community  College  and  the  relocated  portions  of  the  Mass  College  of  Art. 
Boston's  Commercial  High  School  was  built  a  block  away  on  Avenue  Louis  Pasteur 
within  a  few  years  (site  of  present  English  High  School). 

Another  school  in  the  sub-area  is  the  Winsor  School  (103  Pilgrim  RD.),  a 
private  girls'  day  school  which  opened  in  1910.  R.Clipston  Sturgis  was 
designer  of  this  Modern  Gothic  style  building. 

Further  develpment  on  the  Fenway  occurred  when  the  Convent  and  the 
Academy  of  Notre  Dame  (now  Emmanuel  College,  400  the  Fenway)  was  begun  in  1913. 
This  distinguished  Modern  Gothic  structure  was  the  work  of  architects  Maginnis 
and  Walsh.   The  same  year,  the  Peter  Bent  Brigham  Hospital  (Codman  and 
Despradelle,  architects)  opened  (Francis  St.  at  Huntington  Ave.)  adjacent  to 
Harvard  Medical  School  on  a  portion  of  the  former  Francis  estate.   Classical 
Revival  design  is  seen  in  both  the  Brigham  Hospital  and  Children's  Hospital 
(300  Longwood,  another  work  by  architects  Shepley,  Rytan,  and  Coolidge),  which 
was  begun  in  1912  and  completed  in  1914.  The  former  building  of  the  Angell 
Memorial  Animal  Hospital  (180  Longwood)  dates  from  this  period  as  well, 
designed  by  Putnam  and  Cox  (1913-1915).  Across  Longwood  Avenue,  (#179)  the 
Classical  Revival  Massachusetts  College  of  Pharmacy  (Kilham  and  Hopkins, 
architects)  was  built  in  1918. 

Simmons  College  was  acquiring  residentail  properties  between  Pilgrim  Road 
and  Brookline  Avenue,  close  to  its  dormitories,  North  and  South  Halls,  by 
1915.   Around  this  time,  the  section  along  Huntington  Avenue  (#873-877)  and 


the  Riverway  (#382-394)  took  on  its  dense  residential  character  of  today  with 
the  construction  of  numerous  apartment  blocks. 

In  the  1920' s,  the  Mediterranean  Revival  Boston  Lying-in  Hospital  and 
Nurses'  Home  at  221  Longwood  was  completed,  as  was  the  similarly  detailed 
Vanderbilt  Hall  (245  Longwood),  housing  for  Harvard  Medical  School  students. 
The  Georgian  Revival  style  Boston  Public  Latin  High  School  (78  Avenue  Louis 
Pasteur),  designed  by  James  E.  McLaughlin,  was  opened  in  1922.  Additional 
institutions,  which  opened  facilities  on  previously  undeveloped  land  in  this 
decade  were  Beth  Israel  Hospital  and  Massachusetts  College  of  Art  on  Brookline 
Avenue . 

Changes  in  the  Fenway-Longwood.  area's  physical  character  during  more 
recent  years  of  the  20th  century  have  been  caused  by  growth  and  expansion  of 
the  area's  institutions.   The  campuses  of  Simmons  and  Emmanuel  Colleges  now 
include  numerous  contemporary  buildings.   Simmons'  residential  campus  has 
almost  obliterated  signs  of  its  19th  century  neighborhood  of  frame  houses. 
Harvard  Medical  School,  Children's  Hospital,  and  the  Brigham  and  Women's 
Hospital  (successor  to  the  Peter  Bent  Brigham)  and  Beth  Israel  Hospital  ,  have 
added  new  buildings  among  the  old,  in  some  cases  demolishing  parts  of  their 
original  facilities.  Other  examples  of  recent  construction  in  the  sub-area 
are  the  English  High  School  on  Avenue  Louis  Pasteur,  Dana  Farber  Cancer 
Institute  (Brookline  Avenue).   New  commercial  and  mixed-use  buildings  are 
found  on  Brookline  Avenue  to  the  southwest  of  Longwood  Avenue,  while  the 
recent  residential  development  of  Mission  Park  encompasses  a  large  tract  on 
Huntington.   Increased  demand  for  parking  spaces  and  physical  support 
facilities  for  the  medical  institutions  has  also  decreased  the  stock  of 
earlier  structures. 



General  Procedures 

The  Fenway  Preservation  Study  essentially  consisted  of  three  procedures: 
field  survey,  documentary  research,  and  evaluation.  The  field  survey  of  all 
properties  within  the- study  area  was  conducted  on  foot.  Approximately  1,000 
structures  were  visually  surveyed.   In  addition,  the  style,  material,  and  type 
of  each  building  were  recorded  on  a  100-scale,  Figure  5  photogrammetric  base 
map.  The  key  to  this  map  can  be  found  in  Appendix  II.  The  second  procedure 
involved  documentary  research  using  Boston  archives,  libraries,  Suffolk  County 
Deeds,  and  relevant  respositories,  to  investigate  primary  and  secondary 
sources.   The  third  procedure  was  evaluation  of  the  entire  survey  which 
resulted  in  recommendations  for  preservation  activity. 

Because  of  the  considerable  number  of  structures  within  the  survey  area, 
the  decision  was  made  to  record  buildings  or  areas  of  particular  historic 
and/or  architectural  significance  using  the  standard  Boston  Landmarks 
Commission  Building  Information  Form  (Appendix  I) .    Buildings  selected  for 
inclusion  in  these  foirms  were  marked  on  a  400-scale  Fenway  map  by  black  dots 
with  accompanying  notations  of  inventory  form  numbers. 

The  Fenway  was  divided  into  the  following  sub-areas  which  were  primarily 
determined  by  historic  research  and  topographical  divisions:  Audubon  Circle, 
Kenmore  Square,  Fenway /Longwood,  West  Fens /Fenway  Park,  East  Fens  and 
vicinity,  and  Back  Bay  Fens.   (Map  II). 

Recording  and  Evaluation 

Individual  Buildings  -  Building  Information  Forms  were  completed  for  170 
individual  structures,  using  the  following  criteria  in  the  selection  process 
(map  IV)  : 

1.  Uniqueness  in  The  Fenway, 

2.  Good  examples  of  an  architectural  style  and/or  type, 


3.  Association  with  important  national  or  local  events  or  personalities, 

4.  Prominent  visual  landmarks,  and 

5.  Nationally  significant  landscapes 

Districts  -  Were  evaluated  on  the  basis  of  the  distinctiveness  of 
individual  buildings  and  cohesiveness  of  the  streetscape,  and  in  some 
instances,  the  historical  significance  of  the  area.  Whenever  possible, 
buildings  were  grouped  into  National  Register  districts  rather  than  singled 
out  for  individual  listing  (Map  III) . 

Research  Procedure 

Research  was  focused  on  determining  date  or  date  range,  architect  and/or 
builder,  original  property  owners  and  original  appearance  of  buildings 
recorded  on  individual  forms,  as  well  as  sequence  of  neighborhood  development 
and  street  development  pattern.  The  investigation  procedure  followed  these 
general  stages: 

1.   Field  observation  and  building  description. 

2    Examination  of  building  permits. 

3.  Examination  of  maps,  and  atlases  using  the  collections  at  the  Boston 
Public  Library,  Boston  Athenaeum,  Bostonian  Society,  S.P.N.E.A. ,  and 
Massachusetts  State  Library. 

4.  Examination  of  Boston  directories,  as  well  as  histories  of  The  Fenway. 

5.  Deed  research  at  the  Suffolk  and  Norfolk  County  Registries  of  Deeds. 

6.  Examination  of  local  newspapers  including  the  Boston  Transcript,  Boston 
Globe,  and  the  Boston  Pilot. 

7.  Examination  of  photographs  and  views  in  the  collections  of  the  Boston 
Public  Library-Print  Department,  the  Society  for  the  Preservation  of  New 
England  Antiquities,  and  the  Bostonian  Society. 


Photography  -  Photographs  were  taken  for  buildings  described  on 
individual  Building  Information  Forms.   These  photographs  were  taken  by  all 
three  consultants. 

Information  Organization-  The  100-scale  map  (Building 
Style/Material/Type)  and  copies  of  all  building  information  forms  will  be  kept 
on  file  at  the  offices  of  the  Boston  Landmarks  Commission  and  will  be 
available  for  consultation.   Building  information  forms  are  organized  in  a 
loose-leaf  notebook  and  are  further  arranged  alphabetically  by  street 
address.  These  Building  Information  Forms,  which  are  numbered  using  a  system 
adopted  for  all  survey  and  inventory  purposes  in  Boston  (Appendix  III) ,  are 
also  available  for  study  at  the  Boston  Landmarks  Commission.  Duplicate 
building  information  forms  also  will  be  kept  on  file  at  the  Massachusetts 
Historical  Commission,  The  Boston  Public  Library-Art  Department,  the  Bostonian 
Society,  the  Boston  Athenaeum,  the  Library  of  the  Society  for  the  Preservation 
of  New  England  Antiquities,  and  the  Library  of  the  Boston  Redevelopment 

A  file  on  architects,  builders,  and  developers  active  in  The  Fenway  was 
organized  with  information  recorded  on  3x5  index  cards  and  subsequently 
transferred  to  typed  listing  arranged  alphabetically  by  name.   This  list  will 
be  available  for  consultation  at  the  Landmarks  Commission  and  copies  at  the 
agencies  and  institutions  previously  listed. 

The  buildings  selected  were  next  evaluated  as  to  relative  architectural 
and  historical  importance  using  the  following  six-category  system: 

I.   Highest  Significance; 

Buildings  in  Category  I  are  considered  to  have  national  significance 

*  as  buildings  associated  with  Boston  history,  particularly  the 
Colonial  and  Revolutionary  War  periods 

*  as  nationally-known  examples  of  the  work  of  Boston  architects, 


*  as  examples  of  particular  building  styles  or  types  which  became 
prototypes  for  similar  buildings  throughout  the  nation  or  which 
are  rare  throughout  the  nation. 

All  buildings  in  this  category  merit  designation  as  Boston  Landmarks  and 

are  eligible  for  listing  in  the  National  Register  of  Historic  Places. 

Buildings  which  fall  into  Category  I  are  coded  on  the  survey  forms  with 

the  number  (I). 

II.  Major  Significance 

Buildings  in  this  category  are  considered  to  have  the  highest 
significance  to  the  City  of  Boston,  the  Commonwealth,  and  the  New  England 

*  as  the  city's  most  outstanding  examples  of  their  style  or  building 
type,  distinguished  for  high  architectural  quality  and  high  degree 
of  intactness 

*  as  early  or  rare  examples  of  the  use  of  a  particular  style  or 
building  technology  in  Boston 

*  as  buildings  outstanding  in  their  setting,  with  particular  urban 
design  value,  or 

*  as  buildings  of  the  highest  regional  or  local  historical 

Although  often  less  well  known  than  buildings  in  Category  I,  these 
buildings  are  also  considered  to  meet  the  criteria  for  designation  as 
Boston  Landmarks,  as  well  as  being  potentially  eligible  for  individual 
listing  in  the  National  Register  of  Historic  Places.   Buildings  which 
fall  into  Category  II  are  coded  on  the  survey  forms  with  the  number  (II). 

III.  Significant 

Buildings  in  Category  III  are  considered  to  be  of  significance  to  the 
City  of  Boston 

*  as  fine  examples  of  the  work  of  Boston  architects 

*  as  buildings  which  make  an  important  contribution  to  the  character 
of  a  street  or  area 

*  as  buildings  with  strong  historical  associations  with  major  Boston 
industries  or  events,  or 


*  as  fine  examples  of  a  particular  style  or  building  type. 

All  buildings  in  Category  III  falling  outside  the  boundaries  of  suggested 
National  Register  Districts  are  considered  eligible  for  individual 
listing  in  the  National  Register  of  Historic  Places.   In  some  cases, 
buildings  in  Category  III  may  also  meet  the  criteria  for  designation  as 
Boston  City  Landmarks.  Buildings  which  fall  into  Category  III  are  coded 
on  the  survey  forms  with  the  nximber  (III). 

IV.  Notable 

Buildings  in  Category  IV  are  considered  important  to  the  character  of 
their  particular  street,  neighborhood,  or  area 

*  as  an  integral  part  of  a  visually  cohesive  streetscape  or  integral 
element  within  a  district 

*  as  buildings  with  some  individual  architectural  distinction,  whether 
because  of  their  materials,  craftsmanship  or  detailing 

*  as  the  best  examples  in  their  area  of  a  particular  style  or  building 
type,  or 

*  as  buildings  with  some  local  historical  significance. 
Buildings  in  Category  IV  are  not  considered  significant  enough  to  be 
designated  as  Boston  City  Landmarks  or  to  be  listed  individually  on  the 
National  Register  of  Historic  Places.  Buildings  which  fall  into  Category  IV 
are  coded  on  the  survey  forms  with  the  number  (IV). 

V.  Minor 

Buildings  in  Category  V  are  of  little  architectural  or  historical 
interest  but  may  be  considered  to  make  a  minor  contribution  to  the 

*  as  buildings  which  are  compatible  with  surrounding  structures  in 
scale,  style,  materials,  or  fenestration  patterns,  or 

*  as  buildings  with  some  architectural  interest  or  integrity. 
Buildings  in  this  category  are  not  considered  eligible  for  designation  as 
Boston  City  Landmarks  or  for  individual  listing  on  the  National  Register 
of  Historic  Places.   Buildings  which  fall  into  Category  V  are  coded  on 
the  survey  forms  with  the  number  (V) . 

VI.  Non-Contributing 

Buildings  in  Group  VI  are  considered  to  be  visual  intrusions, 

incompatible  with  the  surrounding  architectural  fabric.   Buildings  in 

Category  VI  are  coded  on  the  survey  forms  with  the  number  (VI) . 


4)  — . 
(A  "S 
C    0) 































As  outlined  in  the  Methodology  section,  the  survey-  results  were 
evaluated  for  architectural  and  historic  significance.   Based  on  this 
evaluation,  reconmendations  for  preservation  activity  were  made  by  the 
consultants.  The  recommended  activities  consist  of  listing  of  indlvidioal 
buildings  and  districts  in  the  National  Register  of  Historic  Places  and 
designation  as  Landmark  or  Architectural  Conservation  Districts  by  the  Boston 
Landmarks  Commission.   The  recommendations  of  properties  and  brief 
descriptions  of  their  architectural  characteristics  follow. 

A.   Districts 

The  recommendations  are  divided  into  two  parts:  those  considered  to  meet 
criteria  for  both  National  Register  listing  and  Boston  Landmark  District 
designation  and  those  considered  to  meet  criteria  for  National  Register  and 
Architectural  Conservation  Districts.   Proposed  districts  are  shown  on  Map 
III.   Previously  designated  Architectural  Conservation  Districts  adjacent  to 
the  Fenway  Study  Area  (and  also  shown  on  Map  III)  are  the  Bay  State  Road/Back 
Bay  West  and  St.  Botolph  Districts. 

Districts  meeting  criteria  for  National  Register  and  Landmark  Designation 

1.   Fenway  District 

#56-64  Charlesgate  East,  8-54,  60-140  and  230  The  Fenway,  465  Huntington 
Avenue,  43-67  and  52-86  Hemenway,  91  Westland,  1103-1111  and  1138-1154 
Boylston,  16-30  Ipswich,  and  all  of  the  park  strips  and  subsidiary  frontages 
facing  the  Back  Bay  Fens  between  Ipswich  and  Louis  Pasteur  Streets.   (Maps 
22N/10E,  21N/9E,  22N/9E). 

Considered  eligible  for  including  an  impressive  group  of  residential  and 
institutional  buildings  of  local,  regional,  and  national  significance  fronting 
on,  or  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  Frederick  Law  Olmsted's  Back  Bay  Fens 
which  survives  as  the  northerly  end  of  Boston's  nationally  important  linear 
park  system  -  now  listed  in  the  National  Register  and  protected  as  a  Boston 


Buildings  in  the  proposed  Fenway  district  date  from  the  early  1890' s  ' 
through  the  1920 's  and  represent  a  full  range  of  notable  examples  of  the 
architectural  styles  of  that  era.   Between  Boylston  Street  and  Westland 
Avenue,  the  Fenway  frontage  is  predominantly  built-up  with  substantial 
single-family  residences  while  apartment  development  representative  of  the 
best  examples  of  this  building  type  in  the  study  characterize  Charlesgate  East 
and  The  Fenway  frontage  between  Westland  Avenue  and  Forsyth  Park.  At  the 
district's  southerly  and  between  Forsyth  Park  and  Louis  Prang  Street,  The 
Fenway  is  developed  with  large-scale  institutional  buildings.   This  area  has 
already  been  listed  in  the  National  Register  because  of  its  common  themes  of 
single-family  row  house  styles  and  extraordinary  institutional  styles. 

Buildings  of  particular  historical  and/or  architectural  significance  in 
the  proposed  district  include  Willard  T.  Sears'  Jacobethan  style  New  Riding 
Club  (1892)  at  52  Hemenway,  Wheelwright  and  Haven's  Massachusetts  Historical 
Society  at  1154  Boylston  Street  (National  Registered  Landmark)*  (1897-1899), 
Shaw  and  Hunnewell's  Renaissance  Revival  Boston  Medical  Library  at  8  The 
Fenway,*  now  the  Boston  Conservatory  of  Music  (1899-1901).  The  Peabody  and 
Stearns  residences  at  22  and  24*  The  Fenway  (1900),  Arthur  Bowdltch's  Carlton 
Hotel  at  1138  Boylston  Street,  now  the  Berklee  College  of  Music  (1901-02),* 
The  Fenway  Studios  at  30  Ipswich  Street*  (1904-06),  Parker  and  Thomas, 
architects  (already  listed  in  the  National  Register),  Guy  Lowell's  Johnson 
Memorial  Gates  (1902)  at  the  Westland  Avenue  entry  to  the  Fens,  his  Beaux-Arts 
apartment  block  at  67  Hemenway  (1904-05)  and  his  Neo-Classical  Museum  of  Fine 
Arts  at  465  Huntington  Avenue  (1907-38),*  Edward  T.P.  Graham's  Neo-Classlcal 
Forsyth  Dental  Infirmary  at  140  The  Fenway  (1912-14),*  the  Allen  and  Collins 
Modern  Gothic  St.  Clement's  Church  at  1103  Boylston  Street,*  formerly  the 
Church  of  the  Redemption  (1923-24),  and  Guy  Lowell's  Georgian  Revival  School 
of  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts  at  230  The  Fenway  (1926-27).* 

*  See  also  indlvldiial  recommendations. 


2.   Harvard  Medical  School  District 

230  and  240  Longwood  Avenue  and  25  Shattuck  St.  (Buildings  A,  B,  C,  D,  E, 
of  the  School).   Completed  1906.   Shepley,  Rutan,  and  Coolidge,  architects. 
(Maps  21N-8E  and  21N-9E)   (F/K  528) 

Qualifies  as  an  architecturally  distinguished  complex  of  Classical 
Revival  style  buildings,  a  major  work  of  a  prominent  Boston  architectural 
firm.   This  formal  grouping  of  white  marble  -  clad  buildings  around  a  grassy 
quadrangle  has  housed  Harvard  Medical  School  since  1906,  and  provides  a 
handsome  landmark  in  the  Longwood  area.  Harvard  University's  first  Medical 
School  classes  were  held  in  1782  in  Harvard  Hall  at  the  Cambridge  campus. 
Today  the  School  is  recognized  nationally  as  an  exceptional  medical  teaching 
and  research  institution.   Its  moved  to  this  site  on  Longwood  Avenue  was  a 
major  influence  in  the  growth  of  this  area  of  the  city  as  the  home  of  many 
significant  Boston  medical  facilities. 

3.   Southwest  Fenway  District 

280  The  Fenway,  300  The  Fenway,  400  The  Fenway,  and  all  of  the  park 
strips  and  subsidary  frontages  facing  the  Back  Bay  Fens  and  Muddy  River 
between  Louis  Prang  St.  and  Brookline  Avenue.  (Maps  22N-9E  and  21N-9E) 
(F/K  514,  515,516) 

Considered  eligible  as  a  group  of  architecturally  and  historically 
significant  institutional  buildings  facing  the  Fenway,  Muddy  River,  and  the 
Back  Bay  Fens.   Development  in  this  section  only  occurred  after  implementation 
of  Frederick  Law  Olmsted's  park  plan.   The  city's  "Emerald  Necklace"  has  been 
given  National  Register  and  Boston  Landmark  status.   Buildings  included  in  the 
District  are  Willard  T.  Sears'  Venetian  Fenway  Court  (The  Isabella  Stewart 
Gardner  Museum,  1900-1902)  at  280  The  Fenway*  (National  Register),  Simmons 
College's  Classical  Revival  Main  building  at  300  The  Fenway*  (architects 
Peabody  &  Stearns,  1901-1904),  and  the  distinguished  Modern  Gothic  Emmanuel 
College  main  building  (architects  Maginnis  and  Walsh,  1913-1916)  at  400  The 
Fenway.*  Three  of  the  colleges'  contemporary  buildings  located  on  The  Fenway 
would  fall  within  the  boundaries  of  this  district. 

*  See  also  individual  recommendations. 


■  4.    Symphony  District 

One  Norway  Street,  Christian  Science  Church  at  Norway  Street,  near 
Massachusetts  Avenue,  300  and  301  Massachusetts  Avenue,  241-47  St.  Botolph 
Street,  250-320  and  249-307  Huntington,  29-35  and  30,  40-46  Gainsborough 
Street.  (Maps  22N/10E,  and  23N/10E). 

Considered  eligible  for  its  concentration  along  Massachusetts  and 
Huntington  Avenues  of  prominently  sited  architecturally  distinguished 
buildings  which  serve  as  the  homes  of  cultural,  educational,  and  religious 
institutions  of  major  importance  to  the  city  of  Boston  and  the  nation  and 
remain  as  an  intact  grouping  of  important  works  by  architects  of  local, 
regional,  and  national  influence. 

Included  in  the  district  is  McKim,  Mead,  and  White's  Symphony  Hall 
(National  Register)*  (1899-1900),  Wheelwright  and  Haven's  Horticultural  Hall* 
(National  Register)  (1900-01),  and  New  England  Conservatory  of  Music* 
(National  Register)  (1901-03),  The  Christian  Science  Church  Extention,* 
designed  by  Charles  Brigham  (1904-06),  the  Getting  Industrial  School*  241-47 
St.  Botolph  Street,  designed  by  Peabody  and  Stearns  (1903),  Shepley,  Rutan,  and 
Coolidge's  YMCA*  (1911-13)  at  312-20  Huntington  Avenue,  the  Jewett  Repertory 
Theatre,*  now  Boston  University  Theatre,  264  Huntington  Avenue,  designed  by  J. 
Williams  Seal  (1924-25),  and  the  Christian  Science  Publishing  Society  at  One 
Norway  Street.* 

District  interiors  qualifying  for  protective  status  as  Boston  Landmarks 
include  Symphony  Hall,  Jordan  Hall  (New  England  Conservatory  of  Music), 
Christian  Science  Church  -  auditoriums  of  the  original  buildings  (1893)  and 
the  extention,  and  the  lobby  and  Mapparium  at  the  Christian  Science  Publishing 

*  See  also  individual  recommendations. 


Districts  meeting  criteria  for  National  Register  and  Architectural 
Conservation  District  designation 

1.   Audubon  Circle  District 

499-503  and  500-504  Park  Drive,  comer  Buswell,  896  Beacon  St.,  900 
Beacon  St.,  906-924  Beacon  St.,  100-102  St.  Mary's  St.  and  90  St.  Mary's 
St,  874-880  Beacon  St.,  845-879  Beacon  St.  (including  7  Miner  St.,  8-16 
Aberdeen  St.,  447-465  Park  Drive,  448-468  Park  Drive,  899-923  Beacon  St., 
6-16  and  5-17  Keswick  St.,  124-134  St.  Mary's  St.  and  12-34  Medford  St. 
(Maps  23N-8E  and  23N-9E) 

Considered  eligible  for  its  collection  of  well  designed  residential 
buildings  and  the  vei^y  fine  Ralph  Adams  Cram  designed  Second  Church  in  Boston 
or  Ruggles  Church  (1914).   In  addition,  Audubon  Circle  and  Beacon  St.  were 
planned  in  1886  by  the  pre-eminent  19th  century  American  landscape  architect 
Frederick  Law  Olmsted.  Buildings  in  the  proposed  Audubon  Circle  district  were 
built  from  1888  to  c.  1915  and  represent  an  extension  of  the  fashionable  Back 
Bay  residential  district.  Beacon  St.  and  the  curved  edge  of  Audubon  Circle 
are  built  up  with  substantial  single-family  row  houses,  three-family  houses 
and  larger  apartment  complexes.     Architecturally  and/or.  historically 
signifigant  buildings  in  the  proposed  district  include  several  S.D.  Kelly 
groups  of  Queen  Anne /Romanes que  row  houses  row  houses  documenting  the  earliest 
stage  of  the  area's  development,  e.g.  918-924  Beacon  St.  (1889).   Highly 
individual  row  house  designs  appear  on  the  Renaissance  Revival  875  Beacon  St. 
and  the  Georgian/ Classical  Revival  877  Beacon  St.  (1895).   Both  houses  were 
built  in  1895  and  designed  by  S.D.  Kelly.  Jacobethan  residences  include  the 
groups  at  899-909  Beacon  and  6-16  Keswick  St.  designed  by  W.L.  Morrison  in 
1901,  the  baronial  three  family  house  designed  by  Kilham  and  Hopkins  for  Judge 
Henry  S.  Dewey  c.  1905  and  the  large,  U-shaped  Audubon  Court  apartment  complex 
(now  B.U.  dorms,  built  1915-1916).   Benjamin  Fox  designed  the  three  family 
Strathcona  Terrace  and  Audubon  Terrace  in  the  Romanesque/Georgian  Revival 
style  (449-503  and  500-504  Park  Drive,  1903).   The  six  story,  Beaux 
Arts-Jacobethan  Inverness  at  857  Beacon  St.  was  one  of  the  first  large  multi 
unit  buildings  in  the  area  and  dates  to  the  late  1890' s.   Architecturally  the 


most  significant  building 'in  this  proposed  district,  and  the  major  landmark  on 
its  "skyline"  is  the  very  fine  Ralph  Adams  Cram  designed  Second  Church  in 
Boston  (and  parsonage)  which  was  designed  in  the  Georgian  Revival  style  in 

2.  Park  Drive  District 

1  Queensberry  St.,  51-55,  61-69,  73-79,  107,  111,  117-121,  125-151  Park 
Drive  and  all  of  the  Park  strips  and  subsidiary  frontages  facing  the  Back  Bay 
Fens  between  Queensberry  St.  and  Kilmarnock  St.   (Map  22N-9E) 

Considered  eligible  as  an  interesting,  contiguous  collection  of  town 
houses  (two)  and  large  apartment  buildings  facing  the  Back  Bay  Fens  and 
representing  the  highest  quality  designs  in  the  West  Fens.   These  structures 
summarily  document  the  developmental  history  of  the  area  from  1899-1930  and 
exhibit  elements  of  the  Queen  Anne,  Georgian  Revival,  Beaux  Arts  and  Classical 
Revival  styles. 

The  proposed  district  includes  the  Georgia  Revival  Robert  Treat  paine  Jt. 
House  (1899).   It  is  the  oldest  structure  in  the  West  Fens  and  represents  the 
work  of  Charles  K.  Cummlngs.  Boston  architect  Theodore  M.  Clark  designed  and 
originally  occupied  #107  Park  Drive.   Built  in  1903,  this  house  is  an 
intriguing  blend  of  the  Mansard,  Queen  Anne  and  Georgian  Revival  styles.   The 
majority  of  structures  bordering  the  curving  path  of  Park  Drive  and  the  Back 
Bay  Fens  are  speculator  built  apartment  complexes  dating  from  c.  1910-1930. 
The  work  of  1910' s  and  1920 's  Boston  apartment  building  specialists 
Silverman,   Brown  and  Hienan  are  well  represented  here  and  include  the 
flamboyantly  ornamented  111  Park  Drive  (1922)  and  125-143  Park  drive  (1922). 
George  N.  Jacobs  was  responsible  for  #61-69  Park  Drive  (1921). 

3.  St.  Germain  Street  District 

#8-62  and  15-69  Bt.  Germain  and  10-12  Dalton  Street  (Map  23N/10E) 

Considered  eligible  as  an  intact  pocket  of  modestly  scaled  1890' s  Queen 
Anne  and  Romanesque  Revival  single  and  three-family  row  housing  which  has 
retained  much  of  its  original  architectural  character,  style,  and  detail.   St. 
Geinnain  Street  is  of  particular  importance  as  the  last  remaining  grouping  of 


red  brick  residences  and  multiple-unit  housing  that  developed  during  the  1880 's 
and  1890' s  in  the  vicinity  of  Massachusetts  Avenue,  Falmouth,  Norway,  and 
Dalton  Streets,  and  which  characterized  much  of  that  area  prior  to  the 
development  in  the  1970' s  of  the  Christian  Science  Center. 

4.   St.  Stephen/Symphony  Road  District 

#23-121  and  28-122  St.  Stephen  Street,  50-58,  76-110  and  69-116 
Gainsborough  Street,  lA-33  and  2-42  Symphony  Road,  and  114-148  Hemenway. 
(Map  22N/10E) .  -     -     - 

The  St.  Stephen/Symphony  Road  area  encompasses  much  of  the  residential 
core  of  the  East  Fens  area  and  qualifies  as  a  protected  district  for  its 
inclusion  of  architecturally  significant  and  substantially  intact  single-family 
rows  dating  from  the  mid-1880' s  through  the  early  1890' s  and  multiple—unit  4 
and  5-story  residential  buildings  of  high  design  quality  dating  from  the  late 
1880' s  through  the  1910' s.  A  neighborhood  predominantly  of  moderately  scaled 
red  brick  housing,  the  district  includes  at  28-36,  38-48,  54-64  and  37-57  St. 
Stephens  Streets,  Peabody  and  Stearns'  late  Queen  Anne  and  Georgian  Revival 
rows  and  along  both  sides  of  Gainsborough,  turn-of-the-century  4-family 
residences  designed  by  Arthur  H.  Vinal.  Also  located  in  the  district  is  the 
Victorian  Gothic  Rotch  and  Tilden  designed  St.  Ann's  Roman  Catholic  church, 
originally  built  for  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  of  the  Messiah.* 

*  See  individual  recommendations.   Considered  individually  eligible  for 
National  Register  inclusion. 





B. '  Recommendations  for  Individual  Properties 

The  recommendations  are  divided  into  three  parts:   (1)  those  properties 
meeting  criteria  for  both  National  Register  listing  and  Boston  Landmark 
designation,  (2)  those  meeting  criteria  for  National  Register  listing  only, 
and  (3)  those  recommended  for  further  study.   See  Map  IV  for  individual 
recommendations  and  Map  V  for  further  study  recommendations. 

Meeting  Criteria  for  National  Register  and  Boston  Landmark  designation 

1.  Back  Bay  Fens. 

(Maps  22N-9E;  22N-10E;  23N-9|:;  23N-10E)  (F/K  900A,  and  for  structures: 
900,  901,  902,  903,  904,  905,  906,  907,  908,  500,  501) 

Already  listed  in  the  National  Register  as  part  of  the  Olmsted  Park 
System  and  designated  a  Boston  Landmark,  the  Back  Bay  Fens  is  a  site 
representative  of  elements  of  landscape  design  embodying  distinctive 
characteristics  of  late  19th  century  park  planning  and  implementation  and  is  a 
notable  work  of  Frederick  Law  Olmsted,  whose  work  influenced  the  development 
of  the  City,  Commonwealth,  region,  and  nation. 

2.  Children's  Hospital 

(Original  administrative  building).   300  Longwood  Avenue.   1912-1914. 
Shepley,  Rutan,  and  Coolidge,  architects.  '  (Map  21N-8E)   (F/K  529) 

Qualifies  as  a  noteworthy  example  of  Classical  Revival  institution 
architecture,  designed  by  Boston's  important  firm  of  Shepley,  Rutan,  and 
Coolidge.   It  was  constructed  to  house  Boston's  Children's  Hospital,  which  had 
been  incorporated  in  1869.  At  that  time  it  was  the  third  pediatric  hospital 
established  in  the  United  States,  and  today  is  recognized  throughout  the 
nation  for  its  medical  contributions.  The  4-story  building  has  an  exterior 
material  of  a  concrete  conglomerate;  its  design  features  a  front  facade  of  25 
bays  with  a  central  Corinthian-columned  portico  and  is  crowned  by  a  copper 


3.  Christian  Science  Publishing  Society 

One  Norway  Street.   Chester  Lindsay  Churchill,  architect.   1932-34.   (Map 
23N/10E)   (F/K  703) 

Considered  eligible  as  the  home  and  publishing  plant  of  the  international 
daily  newspaper  The  Christian  Science  Monitor,  and  as  a  visually  prominent 
Neo-Classlcal  building  displaying  distinguished  design  features  including  an 
enclosed  courtyard  along  Massachusetts  Avenue,  a  set-back  temple-like  roof 
extension  near  its  Massachusetts  Avenue  end,  the  atrixom-like  building  lobby, 
and  the  30'  in  diameter  stained  glass  and  bronze  Mapparium  room  which  provides 
an  inside-out  intact  view  of  a  world  globe  of  the  1930' s. 

The  Lobby  and  Mapparium  of  the  building  also  merit  designation. 

(The  Christian  Science  Publishing  Society  is  included  in  the  proposed 
Symphony  National  Register  and  Landmark  District). 

4.  CITGO  sign 

located  on  top  of  660  Beacon  St.   1965.   (Map  23N-9E)   (F  910). 

The  CITGO  sign  is  a  fine  and  locally  very  rare  example  of  the  spectacular 
neon  display  which,  in  its  extravagant  use  of  neon  lighting,  its  marketing  of 
petroleum  products  and  its  appeal  to  the  moving  automobile,  represents  a  less 
energy  conscious,  highly  automobile  dominated  period  in  America's  cultural 
history.   Technologically  innovative  in  the  history  of  advertising  signs,  it 
is  also  a  key  visual  landmark  on  the  Boston  skyline.   It  is  considered  to  meet 
Landmark  criteria  as  a  man-made  object  representative  of  elements  of  design 
and  craftsmanship  which  embody  distinctive  characteristics  of  a  type 
inherently  valuable  for  study  of  a  period  and  method  of  construction.   It  is 
of  cultural  significance  in  representing  a  popular  cultural,  urban  aesthetic 
influenced  by  technology  and  springing  in  part  from  our  automobile  oriented 
age.   Due  to  complex  legal  and  policy  issues  surrounding  designation,  the 
Boston  Landmarks  Commission  denied  a  petition  for  Landmark  status  on  January 
25,  1983. 


5.  Emmanuel  College,  Main  building 

400  The  Fenway,  1913-1916.   Maginnis  and  Walsh,  architects.   (Map 
22N-9E)   (F/K  516) 

Qualifies  as  an  intact,  noteworthy  example  of  Modern  Gothic  academic 
design.  The  Boston  firm  of  Maginnis  and  Walsh  was  responsible  for  this  red 
brick  structure  with  distinctive  bell  tower,  one  of  the  firm's  many  buildings 
for  Catholic  institutions  in  the  Boston  area.  This  edifice  also  serves  as  a 
significant  visual  landmark  along  the  Fenway.  Originally  the  Convent  and 
Academy  of  Notre  Dame,  this  building  was  completed  in  1916,  and  Emmanuel  day 
college  opened  here  in  1919  and  was  granted  a  charter  in  1921. 

(Emmanuel  College's  main  building  is  also  included  in  Southwest  Fenway 

6.  Fenway  Studios 

30  Ipswich  Street,  near  Charlesgate  East.  Parker  and  Thomas,  architects. 
1904-06.  (Map  23N/10E)   (F/K  701) 

Included  in  the  National  Register,  The  Fenway  Studios  qualifies  for 
Boston  Landmark  status  as  a  relatively  unaltered  building  which  has  been  in 
continuous  use  as  artists'  studios  and  housing  since  its  completion,  as  a  rare 
example  of  the  influence  of  the  Arts  and  Crafts  movement  on  Boston 
architecture  as  a  design  by  a  prominent  firm  and  in  addition,  through  its 
close  association  with  the  Boston  school  -  a  group  of  painters  of  local  and 
regional  influence. 

The  Fenway  Studios  also  has  been  included  in  the  proposed  Fenway  National 
Register  and  Landmark  District. 


7.  First  Church  of  Christ  Scientist 

Christian  Science  Center  near  Massachusetts  Avenue.   Original  church,  - 
Franklin  I.  Welch,  architect.   1893-94.   Extension,  Charles  Brigham  with 
S.S.  Beman,  architects.   1904-06.   (Map  23N/10E)   (F/K  535) 

Qualifies  as  an  architecturally  significant  church  complex,  historically 
important  through  its  association  with  Mary  Baker  Eddy,  the  founder  of 
Christian  Science  and  as  the  Mother  Church  of  the  Christian  Science  faith. 
The  domed  Church  Extension  which  is  much  larger  in  scale  than  the  earlier 
Romanesque  Revival  building  is  a  distiguished  example  of  Renaissance  Revival 
architecture,  and  since  its  completion,  has  maintained  its  physical  presence 
as  an  architectural  landmark  of  the  city. 

The  auditoriums  of  both  church  buildings  remain  intact  and  also  merit 

(The  First  Church  of  Christ  Scientist  is  included  in  the  proposed 
Symphony  National  Register  and  Landmark  district). 

8.  Forsyth  Dental  Center 

140  The  Fenway.  Edward  T.P.  Graham,  architect.   1912-14.   (Map  22N/10E) 
(F/K  512) 

Qualifies  as  an  architecturally  significant  marble-faced  building 
prominently  sited  at  one  of  the  primary  landscaped  entrances  to  the  Back  Bay 
Fens  and  forming  with  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts,  just  across  Forsyth  Way,  an 
impressive  Neo-Classival  setting  in  the  Fenway.   Forsyth  Dental  Center  is  also 
of  importance  as  the  home  of  a  major  Boston  health  institution  and  as  one  of 
the  most  important  centers  for  dental  research  and  education  in  the  country. 

The  cafeteria  of  the  building,  formerly  the  Children's  Waiting  Room,  is 
decorated  with  a  Delft  tile  frieze  of  scenes  of  children's  stories  from 
designs  by  Boston  artist  and  architect  A.H.  Hepburn.   It  also  considered 
eligible  for  designation. 

The  Forsyth  Dental  Center  is  included  in  the  proposed  Fenway  National 
Register  and  Landmark  District. 


9.   Isabella  Stewart  Gardner  Museum  (Fenway  Court) 

280  The  Fenway.   1900-1902.   Willard  T.  Sears,  architect.   (Map  22N-9E) 
(F/K  514) 

Listed  in  the  National  Register,  the  Gardner  Museum  qualifies  for  its 
significance  as  an  architecturally  distinctive  Venetian  -  inspired  structure 
which  was  built  as  the  home  and  museum  of  Isabella  Stewart  Gardner,  who  made 
important  contributions  to  the  city's  cultural  life.  Her  diverse  collection 
of  art  includes  Medieval  and  Renaissance  sculpture,  contemporary  paintings 
(Whistler,  Sargent,  Degas,  Matisse),  and  other  works.   The  focal  point  of  the 
building  is  the  skylight-covered  interior  courtyard  with  its  Venetian  windows, 
arcades,  sculpture,  and  horticultural  displays. 

Also  considered  eligible  for  Landmark  designation  of  its  interior. 
The  Gardner  Museum  is  also  included  in  the  proposed  Southwest  Fenway 

10.  Horticultural  Hall 

300  Massachusetts  Avenue  and  247  Huntington  Avenue.  Wheelwright  and 
Haven,  architects,  1900-01.  (Map  22N/10E)   (F/K  536) 

Prominently  located  across  Massachusetts  Avenue  from  Symphony  Hall, 
Horticultural  Hall  qualifies  as  a  major  work  of  an  important  architectural  firm 
and  as  the  continuing  home  of  a  cultural  and  educational  institution  of  local, 
regional  and  national  significance.   Horticultural  Hall  also  has  been  included 
in  the  proposed  Symphony  National  Register  and  Landmark  district. 



11.  Massachusetts  Historical  Society 

1154  Boylston  Street,  c.  Fenway.   Wheelwright  and  Haven,  architects. 
1897/9.  (Map  23/10)   (F/K  505) 

A  Registered  National  Landmark  since  1966,  the  Massachusetts  Historical 
Society  is  considered  eligible  as  the  home  of  a  cultural  institution  founded 
in  1791  and  remaining  as  the  oldest  state  historical  society  in  the  U.S.  and 
as  a  major  work  of  an  important  architectural  firm.   The  Massachusetts 
Historical  Society  is  prominently  located  across  from  Olmsted's  Back  Bay  Fens. 

1154  Boylston  Street  also  is  included  in  the  proposed  Fenway  National 
Register  and  Landmark  district. 

12.  Museum  of  Fine  Arts 

65  Huntington  Avenue.  Guy  Lowell,  architect.   1907-28.   (Maps  21N/9E  and 
22N/9E)   (F/K  524) 

Located  between  Huntington  Avenue  and  the  Fenway,  between  Museum  Road  and 
Forsyth  Way  -  the  landscaped  entry  to  the  Back  Bay  Fens,  the  Museum  of  Fine 
Arts  qualifies  as  an  architecturally  distinguished  example  of  a  large  scale 
Neo-Classical  architecture,  as  a  major  work  of  a  prominent  architect,  and  as 
the  home  of  a  cultural  institution  of  major  significance  to  the  city, 
commonwealth.  New  England  region  and  the  nation.   (The  Museum  of  Fine  Arts 
also  i?  included  in  the  proposed  Fenway  National  Register  and  Landmark 

13.  New  England  Conservatory  of  Music. 

290  Huntington  Avenue  and  30  Gainsborough.  Wheelwright  and  Haven, 
architects.  1901-03.  (Map  22N/10E)   (F/K  522) 

Already  included  in  the  National  Register,  the  Renaissance  Revival  New 
England  Conservatory  of  Music  qualifies  for  Boston  Landmark  status  as  an 
important  work  of  a  prominent  local  architect  and  as  the  home  of  a  cultural 
institution  of  local,  religious  and  national  significance.   Established  in 
1867,  the  New  England  Conservatory  is  of  additional  significance  as  the  oldest 
independent  conservatory  of  music  in  the  U.S.   Since  its  foundings,  New 


England  Conservatory  faculty  and  students  have  made  significant  contributions 
to  the  city,  region,  and  nation  in  music  performance  and  education. 

Designation  of  Jordan  Hall  as  an  interior  landmark  is  also  recommended. 

The  New  England  Conservatory  of  Music  also  falls  into  the  proposed 
Symphony  National  Register  and  Landmark  disrtict. 

14.  Symphony  Hall 

301  Massachusetts  Avenue  and  249  Huntington  Avenue.  McKim,  Mead,  and 
White,  architects  1899-1900.   (Map  22N/10E)   (F/K  537) 

Included  in  the  National  Register,  Symphony  Hall  merits  recognition  as  a 
Boston  Landmark  as  the  home  of  a  cultural  institution  of  considerable  local, 
regional,  national  and  international  significance  and  as  a  prominently  sited, 
major  work  of  a  nationally  important  architectural  firm,  and  for  its  intact 
auditorium  which  continues  to  enjoy  international  recognition  for  the 
excellence  of  its  accoustics. 

Specific  designation  of  the  interior  of  the  auditorium  is  also 
recommended . 

Symphony  Hall  also  is  included  in  the  proposed  Symphony  National  Register 
and  Landmark  District. 

15.  YMCA 


312-320  Huntington  Avenue.   Shepley,  Rutan,  and  Coolidge,  architects. 
1911-13.   (Map  22N/10E)   (F/K  523) 

Considered  eligible  as  a  major  work  by  an  important  architectural  firm, 
as  a  large  scale  and  handsome  example  of  the  Tapestry  Brick  Style,  as  the  home 
of  an  important  educational  and  social  service  institution  and  as  the  "home 
office"  of  the  first  "Y"  branch  to  be  organized  in  U.S. 

(The  YMCA  is  included  in  the  proposed  Symphony  National  Register  and 
Landmark  District). 


Meeting  criteria  for  National  Register  listing  only 

16.  Hastings  Houses 

2  Shart  Street,   (ca.  1875).   (Map  22N-8E)   (F/K  81). 
4  Short  Street,   (ca.  1855).   (Map  22N-8E)   (F/K  82). 

Considered  eligible  as  significant  intact  examples,  the  only  ones 
remaining,  of  the  frame  residences  which  formed  the  19th  century  neighborhood 
along  Short  Street,  Pilgrim  Road,  and  Brookline  Avenue  northeast  of  Short 
Street.  The  early  Italianate  style  dwelling  at  4  Short  Street  has  a  3-bay 
fomt  facade,  side  gables,  corner  pilaters,  and  bracketed  cornices.  Now 
around  the  comer  from  its  original  site,  the  house  was  purchased  by  Bulkey  A. 
Hastings,  a  Boston  butter  and  cheese  merchant,  in  1868  and  remained  (except 
for  1876-1877)  in  Hastings  family  ownership  until  acquired  by  Simmons  Female 
College  in  1904.   2  Short  Street,  later  Italianate  in  style,  features  a  3-bay 
front  with  central  entry  and  porch,  a  hipped  slate  roof,  bracketed  cornice, 
and  bay  windows.   It  was  the  residence  of  Bulkey  Hastings'  son  Francis  and 
wife  Mary  C.  (Hews)  Hastings.   Both  houses  are  now  part  of  Simmons  College's 
residential  campus. 

17.  Moorfield  and  Gertrude  Storey  House 

24  The  Fenway.   Peabody  and  Stearns,  architects.   1900.   (Map  23N/10E) 
(F/K  18) 

Considered  eligible  as  an  architecturally  notable  Federal  Revival 
residence  designed  by  an  important  architectural  firm  and  located  within  the 
Fenway  frontage  near  Boylston  Street.   #24  The  Fenway  is  of  particular  interest 

as  the  residence  of  civil  rights  lawyer  Moorfield  Storey  from  1900  until  his 
death  in  1929.  He  is  best  known  for  his  successful  efforts  during  the  1910 's 
to  gain  Supreme  Court  enforcement  of  the  15th  amendment. 

(#24  The  Fenway  also  is  included  in  the  proposed  Fenway  National  Register 
and  Landmark  District) . 


18.  Robert  Treat  Paine,  Jr.   House 

1  Queensberry  St.  at  Park  Drive.   1899-1901.   Charles  K.  Cummlngs, 
architect.   (Map  22N-9E)   (F  65) 

Considered  eligible  as  a  substantial,  well-designed  brick  Georgian 
Revival  mansion  which  is  the  oldest  building  in  the  West  Fens.   Constructed 
for  attorney  Robert  Treat  Paine,  Jr.  The  house  is  a  reminder  that  Park  Drive 
was  originally  slated  for  development  with  substantial,  stylish  townhouses 
similar  to  those  on  The  Fenway  east  of  the  Back  Bay  Fens.  From  1914-1935,  the 
house  was  owned  by  the  Boston  Vedanta  Center. 


19.  Church  of  Disciples 

105  Jersey  Street,  corner  of  Peterborough.  James  Purdon,  architect. 
1905.   (Map  22N/9E)   (F  540).  ■ 

Qualifies  as  an  architecturally  significant  example  of  early  20th  century 
Classical  Revival  design.   Its  architect  was  Harvard  University  Club 
Specialist  James  Purdon.  The  Church  of  the  Disciples  was  organized  in  1841  on 
Beacon  Hill  by  James  Freeman  Clark.   Overtime  it  occupied  several  buildings  in 
the  South  End  before  a  West  Fens  site  was  chosen  in  1904.  This  red  brick, 
white  cast  stone  and  marble  faced  edifice  is  one  of  the  oldest  structures  in 
the  West  Fens.   It  is  presently  owned  by  the  Seventh  Day  Adventist  Chuch  and 

20.   St.  Ann's  Roman  Catholic  Church 

77  St.  Stephen  Street.  Rotch  and  Tilden,  architects.   1890-92.   (Map 
22N/10E)  (F/K  547). 

^     Considered  eligible  as  an  intact  example  of  a  late  Victorian  Gothic 
church  designed  by  a  prominent  Boston  architectural  firm.   Through  its 
conversion  from  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  of  the  Messiah  to  its  present 
use  as  a  Roman  Catholic  Church,  St.  Ann's  is  of  additional  interest  as  a 
indicator  of  socio-economic  change  in  the  Fenway  area. 


21 .  St.  Cecilia  Roman  Catholic  Church 

20  Belvidere  Street  and  30  St.  Cecilia  Street.   Charles  J.  Bateman, 
architect.   1888-1892.   (Map  23N/10E)   (F/K  503). 

Qualifies  as  a  work  of  an  important  designer  of  Roman  Catholic  churches 
and  institutions  in  the  Boston  area,  as  a  notable  example  of  Romanesque 
Revival  church  architecture,  and  as  the  first  Roman  Catholic  church  to  be  built 
in  the  Back  Bay  and  Fenway  districts. 

22.  St.  Clements  Roman  Catholic  Church 

1103  Boylston  Street.  Allen  and  Collens,  architects.   1923-24.   (Map 
23N/10E)   (F/K  506). 

Qualifies  as  a  notable  example  of  Modern  Gothic  church  architecture  and 
as  a  work  of  a  major  firm  known  for  its  religious  and  institutional 
buildings.   St.  Clement's  Catholic  Church  originally  was  built  as  the 
Universalist  Church  of  the  Redemption. 

(St.  Clements  also  is  included  in  the  proposed  Fenway  National  Register 
and  Landmark  Districts). 


23.  Sears  Roebuck  and  Company  Mail  Order  Store 

309  Park  Drive.   Nimmons,  Carr  and  Wright.   1928.   (Map  22N/9E)   (F  411). 

Qualifies  as  a  fine,  early,  and  locally  rare  example  of  the  Art  Deco 
style  in  Boston.   The  tower  of  this  light  grey  brick  and  Indiana  limestone 
faced  building  is  the  most  prominent  landmark  in  the  West  Fens.   It  was 
designed  by  the  Chicago  based  architectural  firm  of  Nimmons,  Carr  and  Wright. 
This  firm  was  responsible  for  a  number  of  Sears  Roebuck  regional  mail  order 
houses  during  the  1910 's  and  1920' s. 



24.  Berklee  College  of  Music 

1138  Boylston  Street.   Arthur  H.  Bowditch,  architect.   1901-02.   (Map 
23N/10E)   (F/K  504). 

Built  originally  as  the  Carlton  Hotel,  #1138  Boylston  Street  is  considered 
eligible  as  an  architecturally  distinguished  and  intact  large-scale  example  of 
the  Beaux-Arts  style  which  in  Boston  often  includes  a  heavy  overlay  of 
Georgian  Revival  detailing  and  forms. 

(Also  included  in  the  proposed  Fenway  National  Register  and  Landmark 

25.  Boston  Conservatory  of  Music 

8  The  Fenway.   Shaw  and  Hunnewell,  architect.   1899-1901.   (Map  23N/10E) 
(F/K  511). 

Qualifies  as  an  architecturally  significant  building  retaining  much  of 
its  original  appearance  and  its  handsome  wood  panelled  Georgian  Revival  second 
floor  library.  Designed  by  a  prominent  firm,  8  The  Fenway  is  of  further 
significance  through  its  long  association  with  the  growth  and  development  of 
the  city's  medical  establishment. 

(8  The  Fenway  also  is  included  in  the  proposed  Fenway  National  Register 
and  Landmark  District) . 

26.  Boston  Lying-in  Hospital. 

221  Longwood  Ave.   Coolidge  and  Shattuck,  architects.   1921-1922.   (Maps 
21N-8E  and  21N-9E)  (F/K  531) 

This  tan  brick  Mediterranean  Revival  institutional  building  qualifies  for 
its  historic  importance  as  the  home  of  the  Boston  Lying-in  Hospital  from  1923 
to  1981.   The  hospital  was  founded  in  1832  for  poor  women  in  labor,  and  in 
1847  was  the  site  of  the  first  use  of  anesthesia  in  a  U.S.  maternity 
hospital.   The  architectural  firm  of  Coolidge  and  Shattuck  received  the  city's 
Harleston  Parker  Gold  Medal  for  their  design  of  the  Lying-in. 


27.  Boston  Public  Latin  High  School 

78  Avenue  Louis  Pasteur.   1922.   James  E.  McLaughlin,  architect.   (Map 
21N-9E)   (F/K  533). 

This  Georgian  Revival  brick  school  Is  considered  eligible  as  the  present 
home  of  Boston's  Public  Latin  School,  the  oldest  public  school  in  the  United 
States,  founded  in  1635.  Many  Bostonians  who  gained  national  prominence  in 
political  and  civic  affairs  have  been  alumni  of  the  city's  Public  Latin 
School,  which  has  been  housed  in  a  succession  of  homes  and  school"  buildings 
since  its  beginning. 

28.  Boston  University  Theatre 

264  Huntington  Avenue.   Williams  Beal  Sons,  architects   1924-25.   (Map 
22N/10E)   (F/K  521). 

Considered  eligible  as  an  architecturally  significant  Georgian  Revival 
theatre  located  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  several  of  Boston's  cultural 
landmarks  (Symphony  Hall,  New  England  Conservatory,  Horticultural  Hall)  and 
originally  built  as  the  permanent  home  for  the  Jewett  Repertory  Theatre. 

29.  Peter  Bent  Brigham  Hospital,   (original  buildings  which  face  Brigham 

721  Huntington  Ave.   Codman  and  Despradelle,  architects.   1911-1913. 
(Map  21N-8E)  (F/K  525) 

Considered  eligible  as  an  architecturally  notable  Classical  Revival 
institutional  building  with  historic  significance  as  the  original  home  of  the 
Peter  Bent  Brigham  Hospital,  which  opened  in  1913  and  was  founded  to  provide 
medical  care  for  the  poor  of  Suffolk  County.  The  Hospital  has  been  a  teaching 
facility  of  Harvard  Medical  School  throughout  Its  history.  The  first 
successful  kidney  transplant  occured  here. 


30.  The  Cotting  School  for  Handicapped  Children 

241  St.  Botolph  Street.   Peabody  and  Stearns,  architects.   1903. 
Addition: -Stone  and  Webster  Co.,  architects.   1926.   (Map  22N/10E) 
(F/K  546). 

Qualifies  as  an  architecturally  notable  institutional  building  of 
considerable  historical  importance  for  its  continuing  use  as  the  first  school 
for  handicapped  children  in  the  U.S.  The  Cotting  School  was  designed  by  the 
prominent  architectural  firm  of  Peabody  and  Stearns  and  remains  an  intact 
example  of  their  institutional  work. 

(The  Cotting  School  is  included  in  the  proposed  Symphony  National 
Register  and  Landmark  District). 

31.  Massachusetts  College  of  Art 

364  Brookline  Avenue.  .   (1929-1930).  Henry  and  Richmond,  architects. 
(Map  22N-8E)   (F/K  507).  . 

Qualifies  as  a  distinctive  school  building  exhibiting  an  interesting 
blend  of  Art  Deco  and  Modern  Gothic  architectural  elements.   Since  1930  the 
building  has  housed  the  Massachusetts  College  of  Art,  for  which  it  was  built. 
The  college  which  was  founded  in  1873  as  the  Massachusetts  Normal  Art  School, 
remains  the  only  state-supported  autonomous  art  school  in  the  country.  The 
original  purpose  was  to  train  art  teachers  for  the  public  schools,  and  it  has 
since  expanded  its  programs  to  meet  other  artistic  needs  of  the  Commonwealth, 
in  such  areas  as  industry  and  advertising. 

32.  School  of  the  Museum  of  Fine  Arts 

230  The  Fenway.   Guy  Lowell,  architect.   1926-27.   (Map  22N/9E)   (F/K 

Considered  eligible  as  an  architecturally  notable  Georgian  Revival 
building  and  one  of  the  last  designs  of  the  designer  and  architect  Guy  Lowell. 
#230  The  Fenway  is  of  cultural  importance  through  its  association  with  an  art 
museum  of  international  reputation  and  as  a  teaching  institution  in  the  visual 


arts  whose  staff  has  included  regionally  influential  painters,  sculptors,  and 

(#230  The  Fenway  is  included  in  the  proposed  Fenway  "National  Register  and 
Landmark  District) . 

33.  Thomas  Morgan  Rotch,  Jr.  Memorial  Hospital  for  Infants 

5  Shattuck  Street.   1910  (begun).   Shepley,  Rutan,  and  Coolidge, 
architects.   (Map  21N-8E)  (F/K  548). 

Qualifies  as  a  fine  example  of  Classical  Revival  architecture  by  Boston's 
prominent  architectural  firm  of  Shepley,  Rutan,  and  Coolidge,  who  were 
responsible  for  several  substantial  buildings  in  the  Fenway /Longwood  area. 
This  white  marble-clad  structure  with  its  monumental  Ionic  portico  was 
designed  to  coordinate  with  the  Harvard  Medical  School  buildings  nearby.   It 
was  built  for  the  Rotch  Memorial  Hospital  for  Infants,  which  was  incorporated 
in  1881  as  the  West-End  Nursery  and  Infants'  Hospital.  Founded  in  response  to 
the  needs  of  the  poor  in  crowded  tenement  housing  conditions,  its  purposes 
were  to  provide  medical  care  for  infants  and  to  educate  mothers  in  infant  care 
and  artificial  feeding.  The  hospital  was  located  at  55  Shattuck  Street  during 
the  years  1914-1923. 

34.  Simmons  College  (main  building) 

300  The  Fenway.   1901-1904.   Peabody  and  Stearns,  architects.   (Map 
22N-9E)   (F/K  515). 

Considered  eligible  as  the  work  of  Boston's  distinguished  architectural 
firm  of  Peabody  and  Steams,  this  brick  Classical  Revival  institutional 
building  was  the  first  of  Simmons  College's  structures  put  up  in  its  Fenway 
campus.   Simmons  Female  College  was  incorporated  in  1899  and  founded  through 
the  bequest  of  John  Simmons  (1796-1870),  whose  wealth  had  been  made  in 
Boston's  clothing  industry.   The  curriculum  of  the  College  combined  academic 
and  vocational  courses  from  its  beginning  in  an  attempt  to  "enable  the 
scholars  to  acquire  an  independent  livelihood"  as  Simmons  had  specified  in  his 
will.   Simmons  College's  main  building  is  prominently  sited  facing  the  Back 
Bay  Fens. 


(300  The  Fenway  is  also  included  in  the  recommended  Southwest  Fenway 

Special  Use  Structures 

35.  Fenway  Park 

24  Yawkey  Way.   1912;  1934.   (Map  23N-9E)   (F/K  911) 

Qualifies  for  its  considerable  importance  in  sports  history  as  the  home 
stadium  of  the  Boston  Red  Sox  baseball  team  since  its  opening  in  1912.  Fenway 
Park  is  the  major  leagues'  second  oldest  stadiiom,  and  its  only  remaining 
single-deck  stadium.  The  original  Tapestry  Brick  style  entrance  facade  and 
stadium  perimeter  remain. 

36.  New  Riding  Club 

52  Hemenway  Street.  Willard  T.  Sears,  architect.   1891-92.   (Map 
23N/10E)   (F/K  518). 

Considered  eligible  as  an  architecturally  significant  and  stylistically 
distictive  Jacobethan  building  designed  by  a  notable  Boston  architect.   The 
New  Riding  Club  is  of  further  interest  for  its  use  as  a  stable  for  urban 
residents  in  the  developing  new  neighborhood  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Back  Bay 

37.  Riding  School 

145-151  Ipswich  Street.  Wheelwright  and  Haven,  architects.   1900.   (Map 
23N/9E)   (F  407). 

Considered  eligible  as  a  rare  surviving  example  of  a  Back  Bay  Fens  riding 
school,  built  for  well-to-do  Boston  real  estate  speculator  Eban  Jordan,  in 
1900.   It  was  designed  in  the  Queen  Anne/Classical  revival  style  by  the 
prominet  Boston  architectural  firm  of  Wheelwright  and  Haven.   This  firm  was 
responsible  for  a  number  of  important  Fenway  institutions  including 
Horticultural  Hall  (1903),  The  New  England  Conservatory  of  Music  (1903)  and 
Jordan  Hall.   This  red  brick  building  served  as  a  riding  school  until  at  least 
the  early  1920' s. 



n  ^ 


<    - 





>-       !  SS 





>   ii 

<    *°- 

§    . 


0           40( 



Recommended  for  Further  Study 

1.   Farragut  School. 

10  Fenwood  Rd.  Wheelwright  and  Haven,  architects.   1903.   (Map  21N-8E) 
(F/K  517) 

An  architecturally  notable  example  of  a  Georgian  Revival  school,  designed 
by  Boston's  prominent  firm  of  Wheelwright  and  Haven.   The  experimental 
ell-shape  plan  attempted  to  exclude  sunlight  from  classrooms  to  benefit 
students'  eyes. 

2.   Girls'  Latin  School  and  Normal  School 

(now  part  of  Roxbury  Community  College).  Palace  Road,  Tetlow  Street,  and 
Huntington  Avenue.   1906-1907.   Peabody  and  Stearns;  Maginnis,  Walsh  and 
Sullivan;  Coolidge  and  Carlson,  architects.   (Map  21N-9E)   (F/K  538). 

This  grouping  of  notable  red  brick  school  buildings  with  terra  cotta  trim 
is  Beaux-Arts  in  design,  and  is  now  partially  obscured  by  later  buildings  and 
additions  of  the  Roxbury  Community  College  and  relocated  Massachusetts  College 
of  Art.  Prominent  Boston  architects  were  chosen  by  the  city  to  design  the 
formal  group  which  originally  formed  a  prominent  landmark  along  Huntington 
Avenue . 

Further  research  is  needed  on  the  history  of  the  schools  and  the  intactness  of 
the  original  building  complex. 

3.   Martin  Millmore  School. 

85  Peterborough  St.  George  E.  Robinson,  architect.   1929.   (Map  22N-9E) 
(F/K  540A) 

A  notable  example  of  Georgian  Revival  institutional  design,  named  for 
mid-late  19th  century  Boston  area  sculptor  Martin  Milmore. 


4.  Richardson  Building 

5-15  Jersey  Street,  76-88  Brookline  Avenue.   1916  (Map  23N/9E)   (F  408). 

Considered  eligible  as  a  well  designed  and  preserved  example  of  an  early 
20th  century  Classical  revival  Kenmore  Square  commercial  building.   Its 
severly  Classical  Revival  facades  are  faced  with  white  terra  cotta. 
Particularly  noteworthy  are  the  monumental,  fluted  and  engaged  Tuscan  columns 
which  flank  the  main  entrance.   Designed  in  1916  by  Boston  architects  Monks 
and  Johnson,  it  was  dedicated  in  1920  to  the  memory  of  George  Lincoln 
Richardson,  a  soldier  in  W.W.I  who  was  killed  at  Verdum,  France  in  1918. 

5.  Winsor  School 

103  Pilgrim  Road.   1909-1910.  R.  Clipston  Sturgis,  architect.   (Map 
22N-8E)   (F/K  543). 

Housed  in  a  handsome  Modern  Gothic  style  red  brick  school  building,  the 
Winsor  School  deserves  further  study  for  its  relative  importance  in  Boston's 
educational  facilities.  The  predecessor  to  this  private  girls'  college 
preparatory  day  school  was  founded  in  1886  by  Mrs.  Francis  Brooks,  and  was 
taken  over  by  Mary  Pickard  Winsor  the  next  year. 


BOSTON  LANDMARKS  COMMISSION       Building   Inforraatioa  Form     Form  No.55<Area  t^kiKlAv/ 

ADDRESS30^  M>^AcHl^Qt;r      COR . 
NAME .<r^^^P4i^^\\JUA,l 

present  original 

MAP  No.s^^|/^^.  •    SUB  AR£A^,rr-f=?=h).^ 

source  v/o^  \}ci,  KJClD^H^) 

I^ER  i^'iTTrTv)u\giVp.>M  rm^ 


TOGRAPHS  F^^)j,^JL.  (J^Jf-  -R^ 

TYPE  (residential)  single   double   row   2-fam. 
(non-residential)  A^E^m?ill^.^ 

3-deck       ten       apt. 

NO.   OF  STORIES   (1st  to   cornice) ^tAmrfe-stazv")  A^to 


<S^-8tSH  V^Wf.  ■R/fT/^S'/ceS' 


P■'■^S     /^K^,C    Av.^/^:|=rTglHiN.;:)gL 


MATERIALS   (Frame)   clapboards     shingles     stucco     asphalt     asbestos     alum/vinyl 

D    +V,  (0ther)c£fI2S:  zsD       4¥Sne  ?>^t*.«PTyiM    .  .  goncrejie     iron/steel/alum.    .  ^^    „   ^ 

Rather  austere  Renaissance   Revival  Ijaaxl^ca-pjan  concert  nali  with  9-t)ay 

BRIEF  DESCRIPTION  iiSB?fJ°§d^R6e 5^81^1^11" ?i|g^^ihl!2E3^%S%??  ill^t  iH 
monumental  doublerstory  limes tone, Ionic .columns   supporting  a  classical 
enta.Dlg.ture,?.nd  with  extended  attic   exhibiting  stone-trimmed  pediment 
enclosing  blind  round  window.      Marble  medallions   gjid  plaques    enriQh  facade 
and  are  used  over  entry  doors   of  porch  and, at  attic .,. Long. symetrical,    9- 
bay  Mass.    Av? .    fro^t   includes    /-bay  central  section  displaying  1st   floor 

wall  arches   :;ncluding  paired  rectangular  windows   set  below  lunettes   and 

full-story  limestone    trimmed  central  arched  entry  with  lyre   and  garland 
EXTERIOR  ALTERATION       minor       moderate       drastic  Iceystone. 

CONDITION  good  fair  poor 

_LOT  AR£A3'A,(V,jf 

sq.  feet 

NOTEVORTHY  SITE  CHARACTERISTICS  On  large  \isually  prominent  corner  lot  at  crossing 
of  two  major  Boston  thoroughfares  .  Opposite  on  Mass .  Ave .  is  h.orxicuitural 
Hall  (see  form  for).   Just  west  and  across  Huntington  from  the  New  Snglad 
Conservatory  of  Music  (see  form  for)-  Huntington  entrace  races  wj:^a  roaaway 
underpass.  SIGNIFICANCE  (cont'd  on  reverse) 

Symphony  Hall  is  a  significant  work  of  a 
nationally  prominent  architectural  firm, 
is  the  home  of  the  Boston  Symphony 
^  P^  Orchestra — a  cultural  institution  of  major 

importance  to  the  city,  state,  region,  and 
nation,  and  remains  internationally  renown 


Tf  Visa- 

Moved;    date   if  kno 


Themes    (check  as  many  as   applicable) 

The  Arts 







Significance   (include  explanation  of  themes   checked  above) 

for  its  accoustical  excellence. 

This  architecturaJlt^  distinguished  building, with  Horticultural  Hall 
its   neighbor  across  Mass .   Ave  .,  serves  as  part  of  a  landmark  gateway 
into   the   Back   Bay/Fenway  areas . 

(for-  additional  information: 
Register  Nomination  Form) . 

see  Symphony  Hall  National 

Preservation  Consideration   (accessibility,    re-use  possibilities,    capacity 
tor  public  use  and  enjoyment,   protection,   utilities,    context) 

On  the  National  Register.      Recommended  for  additional  protection 
as   a  Boston  Landmark.      Also   included  in  the   Symphony  Hall  National 
Register  and  Boston  Landmark   District. 

Interior  of  Symphony  Hall  qualifies   for  Boston  Landmark  status. 

Bibliography  and/or  references    (such  as   local  histories 
records,    early  maps,    etc.) 

deeds,    assessor's 

30ST0NGTJ3SS.  MAiasU    23,  iqrin    AimdL&  O^  SV/MfH-C^VHrAO-  St5ntiAf2V(fFr/s}eA?n^Tb€^) 

BOSTON  LAM3MARKS  COMMISSION       Building  Infonnatioa  Form     Form  No.J^^Area -P^i^^j^v^ 

ADDRESS  ^^/^35!TrLPMSTBgg=^    CSJl .  KJaag. AMSi<cwS^r«- AvgMUg- 

NAME  A4A*jt>/cAff^cuia:!gsjsj Amr  •peaflMaa  cu)'LD(z.aj 

present         original 

No.  ^LZJ^in^^ SUB  AREA 

ATE  /^(D3  AKJP  l^zio     3u</^\6-psaMh-^ 


cHiiECT  yj-ss::;.^:^';.  -^^^^^^^^^^^ 


IILDER  iqTj„  .  m,^  ^  KW»i.:t^:^^j, .    BJ/U^ IK]5- I^RKtts- 


orxgmal        present 

:GT0GRAPHS  f^KyAW^  .^?^  4^^  ^a^ 

TYPE  (residential)  single  "  double   row   2-fain. 
(non-residential)  StHnt^L- 

3-deck   ten   apt. 

NO.  OF  STORIES  (1st  to  cornice)   _S 
•OOF -R5»f cupola 

plus  •nX^snyt-VgAsaMgqr- 
dormers   ' : — ■ 

MATERIALS  (Frame)  clapboards 
(Other)  brick  ^;j» 

shingles  stucco 
stoiie  TT^M 

asphalt  asbestos  alum/vinyl 
concrete  iron/steel/alum. 

iJKiJii  UhbLKirTION  z-i-saVps^cacc. -ri.MT-i>i.s*MK^  "mJ  a3«^<:Al_-U^l*sttD^i^-^^|^uu«diCL*,trla^a 

moderate       drastic 


CONDITION  (goo^  fair     poor 


of  Northeastern  U.    (formerly  Boston  Arena)  . ^__ ^_^ 

Attached   at  left,    single-story  -plus   "basement  hip-ped  roofed   squarish- pi  an 
bui Iding  with  copper   trimmed  pinnacled  cupola  with  weather  vane   and  copper 

_LOT  AREA  JS/=^  p>^^ 
2ry  large   lot  ocfci 

sq.  feet 

On  very  large  lot  oc'cupying  all  of  frontage 
"between  service  alleys .   Across  from  Mathews  Are] 

Lot  slopes  off  steeply  to  rear. 

frieze  dated  1912.   7'  "brick 
wall  along  left   street 
frontage;  fencing  with  iron 
pickets  along  right  section. 

SIGNIFICANCE  (cont'd  on  reverse) 

Architecturally  nota"ble  institutional  "building 
of  considerable  historical  importance  as  the 
continuing  home  of  the  first  school  for  handi- 
capped children  in  the  United  States.   The 
Getting  School  was  designed  by  the  prominent 
Boston  architectural  firm  of  Peabody  and 
Stearns  and  remains  as  an  intact  example 



Moved;  date  if  known 

Themes  (check  as  many 

as  applicable) 






•ked  above) 




Architectural     x 
The  Arts 









Political       _ 
explanation  of  themes 



Significance  (include 


of  their  institutional  work. 

Founded  In  189^,  the  Industrial  School  for  Crippled  and  Deformed 
Children,  as  it  was  then  called,  was  initiated  and  supported 
entirely  through  donation  and  charitable  fund-raising »  and., 
began  with  2^  "scholar-patients"  who  were  brought  by  bus  to  St. 
Andrews  Hall  on  Chambers  Street  in  the  old  West  End.  Soon  after- 
wards, as  the  need  to  offer  board  and  lodging  for  pupils  increaseo 
a  row-house  at  6  Turner  Street  (see  'form  for  12-30  Edgerly  Road) 
was  rented  to  provide  space  for  the  school.  Subjects  taught  at  this f 
time  included  sewing,  crochet,  drawing,  woodcarving  ("for  boys 
only"),    physical  culture,    and  kitchen  gardening. 

Francis   J.   Cotting,    one   of   the   original   trustees    of   the   Industrial 
School,   was   from,  around   the    turn- of- the-c entry  to    the    time   of 
his   death  in  191^  at  age   ^8,    president   of  the   institution, and 
as   a  physically  handicapped  person,  was   committed   to- instruction 
at   the   school   of  practical   and  commercially  valuable    trades. 

By  the   time    the   school's-  home  was   built   on  St.    Botolph  Street 
(opening  reception — December  1,    1904),.   courses   in  a  variety  of 
handicrafts   and   trades  were   being  offered  and'  a  print  shop      — see   p) 

Preservation  Consideration   (accessibility,    re-use  possibilities,    capacity 

for  public  use  and  enjoyment,   protection,   utilities,    context) 

Bibliography  and/or  references    (such  as   local  histories,    deeds,    assessor's 
records,    early  maps,    etc.) 
SOrrO*^  BUI  Li>'(  nJ5.  is^pr.  TZien^jeDr . 

2^'l   St.  Botolph  Street 
Getting  School 
page  2 . 

Significance  continued; 

that  filled  over  ^00  orders  for  individuals  outside  of  the 
school  was  in  operation.   The  staff  smd  trustees  of  the  Industrial 
School  developed  a  curriculum  and  school-day  that  provided 
study,  industrial  trades,  exercise,  good  nutrition,  fresh-air 
and  light,  and  medical  treatment.  In  1912,  a  fresh-air  class- 
room was  "built,  and  children  studied  in  a  small  building  with 
open  sides.   This  structure  was  moved  to  make  way  for  the  1926 
addition  but  remains  on-site  (although  now  closed-in)  and 
is  attached  to  the  left  side  of  the  school. 

A  sizeable  addition  quite  similar  in  style  and  treatment  to 
the  earlier  building  was  completed  in  1926,  and  the  old  school 
became  the  classroom  building,  and  the  new  was  used  for 
industrial  training.  '  The  school's  enrollment  was  at  this  time 
108  students,  and  8  grades  of  elementary  work,  3  years  of 
high  school,  plus  industrial  work  including  printing,  lino- 
type operation,  stenography,  typewriting,  and  office  practice 
were  available.   Today,  the  Getting  School  provides  a  full 
academic  program,  approved  by  the  Boston  School  System, 
as  well  as  medical  support  and  vocational  training  for  students 
in  grades  1  through  12.  ■  All  pupil  services  are  provided  through 
scholarship  assistance  and  city/town  payments,  and  there  is  no 
direct  cost  to  parent  or  student.   In  1981-2,  the  Getting 
School  served  122  children  from  ^7  cities  and  towns  in  the 
Greater  Boston  Area. 

Robert  Swain  Peabody  (18^4-5-1917)  and  John  Goddard  Stearns  (18^3- 
1917) »  the  architects  of  the  Getting  School, enjoyed  an  extensive 
practice  which  lasted  for  ^0  years.   The  firm  was  of  major 
importance  from  the  l87G's  through  the  1910 's  and  was  known  for 
its  school,  public,  insltutional,  commercial,  and  residential 
desi.gns.   Their  work  included  Mathews  Hall  and  the  old  Hemenway 
Gym  at  Harvard;  the  Boston  and  Providence  Railroad  Station 
formerly  in  Park  Square;  the  Exchange,  Gunard,  and  India 
Buildings  on  Boston's  State  Street;  the  Hotel  Bellevue  at  19- 
25  Beacon  Street,  and  numerous  residences  in  Back  Bay.   Peabody 
and  Stearrswere  the  architects  of  the  Dorchester  Heights  monu- 
ment in  South  Boston  and  the  Ci^om  House  Tower,  and  in  the 
Fenway  area,  were  responsible  for  the  Queen  Anne/Georgian 
Revival  row  at  37-57  St.  Stephen,  the  Georgian  Revival  row  at 
38-56  St.  Stephen,  and  the  townhouses  at  22,  2^,  26  The  Fenway, 
and  Simmons  College  at  300  The  Fenway  (19Q1-4-)  (see  forms  for). 

AJr'i'ENDIX    II 

Key  to  100'  Scale  Inventory  Maps 


Histaric  Inventory  Mao  Coding  System  -  Boston 

City  is  divided  into  the  following  districts,   note  abbreviations. 
A  capital  letter  or  pair  will  always  precede  a  number  for  coding. 


East  Boston 



Chart  estown 



North  End/Waterfront 



Back  Bay 



Beacon  Hill 



Bay  Village/Chinatown 









Mission  Kill 



South  End 


South  Boston 

Jamaica  Plain 




West  Roxbury 

Hyde  Park 

Government  Center/North  Station 

West  End 

Central  Business  District 

2.       Numerical  system  is  divided  into  the  following  use  categories. 

(MHC  code  is  the  underlying  structure  here  with  additional  break- 
downs to  deal  with  the  large  number  of  structures  in  the  City). 

Buildings  1-799 

Further  broken  down  into: 

Residential  1-399 

(including  all  types  of  residential  structures,   apartments, 
out  buildings,   such  as  carnage  houses,   barns,   stables, 
and  garages) 

Commercial  400-499 

(Including  retail,  office,   bank,  gas  stations,  fast  food, 

auto  repair,   super  markets,   shopping  center,   hotel,   theatre, 

combined  commercial/residential ) 

Institutional  500-699 

(Including  church,   school,   municipal,   hospital,   nursing 
home,   club,    R.R.   station,   civic,   stadium) 

Manufacturing  700-799 

including  manufacturing,   lofts,   factory  warehouse,   mill 

Cemetary  800-899 

Structures,   Parks,   Monuments,   Markers  900-999 

(Including  bridge,  canal,  dam,  tunnel,  road/path,  windmill, 
fort,  standpipe,  marker/tablet,  statue,  fountain,  milestone, 
parks,   benches,  training  fields,   clocks) 

Streetscapes  1000-X 

3.        Example  of  how  to  use  system 

D159  -  reflects  a  residential  structure  in   Dorchester 

H900  -  reflects  a  bridge  in  Hyde  Park 

H371   -  reflects  a  commercial  structure  in   Hyde  Park 

Color  # 



Greek  Revival 

Gothic  Revival 


High  Victorian 




Stick  Style 

Queen  Anne 




Shingle  Style 




Victorian/ Industrial 
Commercial   Style 





1 1  #904 

1           l#Qnfi 



'           '#°07 

1           l#cinQ 


1             I#qi4 

1             I#qi7 




Beaux  Arts 

Georgian  or 
Colonial    Revival 

Federal   Revival 
(1900-1920)        T 

Modern  Gothic 








Early  20th  Century  Commercial 

Tapestry  Brick 


Art  Deco/ 




I  #916 


I  #945 




1            l#Q27 




1           l#Q36 


.     #964. 


'           '# 





Building  Materials 

unmarked,  single  family 





2F:       two  family 





3D:       triple  decker 





A:         apartment 

(police,  fire. 

•  (m) 


Gar:     garage 

library,  etc.) 



Barn:   stable  or 


hospital ,  nursing 











Rl:     retail   store 



(1-2  stories) 





0   :     office,   bank 






Pauline  Chase  Harrell,  Chairwoman 

Lawrence  A.  Bianchi 

Libby  Blank 

James  Alexander 

Susan  S.  Davis 

Thomas  J.  Hynes,  Jr.- 

Henry  A.  Wood 


Roger  P.  Lang,  Vice  Chairman 

Virginia  Aldrich 

Stanford  0.  Anderson 

John  F.  Cooke 

Joan  E.  Goody 

Rosalind  E.  Gorin 

Imre  Halasz 

Carl  A.  Zellner 

Marcia  Myers,  Executive  Director 

Judith  B.  McDonough,  Survey  Director 

Paula  Mierzejewskl,  Administrative  Assistant 


Robert  L.  Farrell,  Chairman 
Joseph  J.  Walsh,  Vice  Chairman 
James  K.  Flaherty,  Treasurer 
Clarence  J.  Jones,  Member 
William  A.  McDermott,  Jr.,  Member 
Kane  Simonian,  Secretary 
Stephen  Coyle,  Director 

',.6  80